Indian States

Description  About Indian States

                                                                      Andhra Pradesh


Andhra Pradesh State India

Area : 275, 069 sq km
Population : 7, 61, 11,243; growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 13.86%
Density per sq km : 275
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 978
Literacy rate : 61.11% (males: 70.85%; females: 51,17%)
Capital : Hyderabad
No. of Districts : 23
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Languages : Telugu and Urdu.
Important Cities, Towns are Religious / Tourist Places :
Adilabad, Anantpur, Adoni, Bheemavaram, Chittoor, Cuddapah, Eluru, Guntur, Hyderabad (Birla Mandir, Charminar [ majestic four-minarest monument built in 1591 Ad], Salajung Museum, Golconds Fort [ once the legendary fort, the capital of Qutub Shabi kings who ruled the surrounding territories from 1518 to 1687 Ad ], Mecca Masjuid [ started in 1687 AD by Abdullab Qutub Shab and completed by Aurangzeb when be annexed Golonda kingdom ], Naubat pabad [ two billocks; one is the site of banging garden and the other marble temple of Lord Sri Venkateswara ], Nehru Zoological Park, Osmansagar 9 beaautiful lake formed by damming the river Musi ], Hussainsagar Lake [ separating Hyderabad and Secunderabad cities; a giant statue of Lord Gautama Buddha of a height of 60 feet is erected on the Gibraltar rock here ], Tombs of Qutab Shabi Kings ), Kakinada, Karimnagar, Khammam, Kurnool, Machilipatnam, Mahaboobnagar, Nagarjunakonda ( Buddha Stupa ), Nagarjuna Sagar, Nalgonda, Nellore, Nizamabad, Ongole, Proddaturm Puttaparthi ( Ashram of Sri Satya Sai Baba ), RajaHmundry, Sangareddy, Srikakulam, Tenali, Tirupati ( the holiest Hindu place of South India known for Lord Sri Venkateswara Temple located in a hillock which typifies the early Dravidian Architecture ), vijayawada, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Yadagirigutta ( Sri Lakshminarasimha Swamy Temple ).
Judicature : High Court at Hyderabad.

Location : Located in South India, Andhra Pradesh is bounded by Tamil Nadu in the south – Orissa in the northeast Maharashtra and Chhattoisgarh in the north east – Maharashtra and Chhattisgarh in the northeastern Maharashtra and Karnataka in the west and buy the Bay of Bengal in the east.
History : Andhra Pradesh was constituted as separate State on October 1, 1953 on the partition of Madras Presidency and consisted of the undisputed Telugu – speaking area of that State. To this region was added on November 1,1956 the Telangana area of the former Hyderabad State, Comprising the districts of Hyderabad, Medak, Nizamabad, Karimnagar, Warangal.
Khamman, Nalgonda and Mahabubnagar, parts of the Adilabad district, and some taluks of the Raichur, Gulbar and Bidar districts, and some revenue circles of the Nanded district. On April 1, 1960, 573.43 sq km ( 221.4sq miles ) in the Chingleput to Andhra Pradesh in exchange for 1,062 sq km ( 4110 sq miles ) from Chittoor district. The District of Prakasam was formed on February 2, 1970. Hyderabad was split into two districts on August 15, 1978. A new district, Vizianagaram, Was formed in 1979.
Economy : For about 70 percent of the people of Andhra Pradesh, agriculture is the main occupation. About 40 percent of the cultivated area is irrigated. Important crops of the State are rice, jowar, bajra, maize, ragi, small millets, pulses, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, groundnut and bananas. The State is surplus in respect of rice. The state accounts for about 55 percent of the country’s entire production of castor and 94 percent of the Virginia tobacco. Forests cover about 23 percent of State’s area. Important forest products are teak and other country wood, eucalyptus, cashew, casuarina, bamboo, soft wood, etc.

Andhra Pradesh has a virtual monopoly of quality ‘Chrysotile asbestons’ in the country. It accounts for about 98 percent of India’s total production of barytes. Other important minerals found in the State are copper ore, managnese, mica, coal and limestone. In respect of manganese or production, the state ranks sixth in the country. It also ranks second in respect of mica and limestone production. The famous Singareni cola mines are located in Andhra Pradesh, which supply coal to the entire south India. The State Government is also promoting Indian Institute of Information Technology ( IIIT ) at Hyderabad.
Hyderabad and Visakhapatnam are the main centres of several major industries. They are known for the production of machine tools, synthetic drugs. Pharmaceuticals, electronic equipment, aeronautical parts, electronic equipment, aeronautical parts, cement, chemicals, asbestos, cement products and glass. Besides them, there are 2,539 large and medium size industries in the State which employ over seven lakh persons.
Important power projects are : Machkund, Upper Sileru, Lower Sileru, Tungabhadra Dam, Nagarjuna Sagar, Srisailam and Nizamsagar hydel power Schems and Nellore, Ramagundam, Kothagudem and Vijayawada thermal stations. Visakhapatnam is the major port while Kakinada, Machilipatnam, Bheemunipatnam, Krishnapatnam, Vadarevu and kalingapatnam are the minor ports.
Important airports : Hyderabad, Tirupati, Vijay Wada and Visakhapatnam.
Tags : States of India History , States of India Economy, States of India History by Area, States of India Tourism,

                                                                 Arunachal Pradesh


Arunachal Pradesh State India

Area : 83,743 sqlkm
Population : 10,96,702; growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ); 26.21%
Density ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 901
Literacy rate : 54.74% ( males : 64.07%; females : 44.24% )
Capital : Itanagar
No. of Districts : 14
Legislature : Unicameral
Arunachal Pradesh Principal Languages : Nyishi, Dafla, Miji, Adi Gallong, Wancho, Tagin, Hill Miri, Mishmi, Monpa, Nocte, Aka, Tangsa and Khamti.
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places in Arunachal Pradesh :
Along, Anini, Bhismaknagar ( archaeological sites ), Bomdila, Changlong, Daporijo, Itanagar ( with excavated ruins of historical Ita Fort and attractive Ganga Lake ), Khonsa, Pasighat, Seppa, Malinithan ( archaeological sites ), Namdapha ( wildlife sanctuary in Changlang district ), Pareaswaramkund ( place of Pilgrimage ), Tawang ( and nearby largest Buddhist monastery in India ), Tezu, Ziro.
Arunachal Pradesh Judicature : The state comes under the jurisdiction of Guwahati High Court.
Arunachal Pradesh Location :
Bounded by Bhutan to the west, China to the north – east, Myanmar ( Burma ) to the cast and the plains of Assam to the south, Arunachal Pradesh is the home of more than 20 major tribes and acknowledged to be one of the most splendid, Variegated and multilingual tribal areas of the world.
History of Arunachal Pradesh :
The modern history of Arunachal Pradesh begins with the establishment of the British – rule in Assam by the treaty of Yandaboo concluded in 1826. Arunachal Pradesh acquired an identity of its own for the first time in 1914, when some tribal Lakhimpur districts of the province of Assam to form the North East Frontier Tract.
The North East Frontier Tract was further sub – divided into the Balipara Frontier Tract, Lakhimpur Frontier Tract, Sadiya Frontier Tract and the Tirap Frontier Tract during various stages of evolution between with the Naga Tribal area, Were Collectively renamed the North East Frontier Agency ( NEFA ) in 1951.

In 1954, the NEFA was reconstituted into the Kameng Frontier Division, Lohit Frontier Division and Tuensang Frontier Division. The Tuensang Frontier Division was separated from NEFA in 1957 and merged with the newly constituted Nag Hills – Tuensang Area which now forms the State of Nagaland. Later, five Frontier divisions of the territory became the five original districts. Arunachal Pradesh acquired an independent political status in 1972, when it was upgraded as Union Territory. It became a full – fledged as Union Territory. It become on February 20, 1987.
Arunachal Pradesh Economy :
For about 35 percent of the population of Arunachal Pradesh, agriculture is the main occupation. Seventeen percent of total cultivated area is under irrigation. Rice, maize, millets, pulses, potatoes, Wheat and mustard are the important crops. About 62 percent of the total area of the State is under forests. The principal industries of the State are forest – based.
Besides handloom and handicraft industries, saw mills, fruit preservation units, soap and candle manufacturing, steel fabricatio0n, oil expellers are in the medium and small industrial sectors. The State has reserves of focal and crude oil. Deposits of dolomite ore, limestone, copper ore have also been reported.


Assam State Informations
Area : 78,438 sq km
Population: 2,66,38,407; growth rate (1991-2001): 18.85%
Density per sq km: 340
Sex ratio (females per 1,000 males): 932
Literacy rate: 64. 28% (males: 71.93%; females: 56.03%)
Capital : Dispur
No. of Districts: 23
Legislature: Unicameral
Principal Language: Assamese
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Place: Barpeta, Batadrava ( with place of great Vishnav Saint Sankardev ), Bhalukpung ( Angling ), Chandubi Lake ( Picnic Spot ), Dhemaji, Dhubri, Dibrugarh, Diphu, Goalpara, Golaghat, Guwahati, Madan Kamdev Temple, Navagraha ( Temple of Nine Planets ), Straight Bridge, State Museum, State Zoo, Sukresuwar Temple, Umanada [ Peacock Island ], Halflong ( Health Resort ), Hajop ( Meeting Point of Buddhism, and Islam ), Hailkandi, Jatinga Hills, Jorhat, Karimagnj, Kaziranga National Park ( famous for one – horned Great Indian Rhinoceros ), Kokrajhar, Lakhimpur, Majuli ( Largest River Island in the World ), Marigaon, Nagaon, Nalbari, Pragjyotishpur, Sibsagar ( Shiva Temple ), Silchar, Sualkchi ( famous for Silk Industry ), Tezppur ( Scenic Beauty ), Tinsukia.
Location: Location in eastern India, Assam is almost separated from central India by Bangladesh. It is bounded West by West Bengal, North by Bhutan and Arunachal Pradesh, East by Naglad, Manipur and Myanmar, South by Meghalaya, Bangladesh, Tripura and Mizoram.
Assam is an Ancient Land with a Rich Cultural Heritage. Known as Pragjyotisha and later Kamrupa, she played a Prominent Part in History of Ancient and Medieval India. Assam first became a British Protectorate at the close of the first Burmese war in 1826. In 1832, Cachar was annexed; in 1835, the Jaintia Hills were included in the East India company’s Dominions and in 1839, Assam was annexed to Bengal.
In 1874, Assam detached from Bengal and made a separate chief commissionership. On the partition of Bengal in 1095, it was united to the Eastern Districts of Bengal under a Lt. Governor. From 1912 the chief commissionership of Assam was revived and in 1921 a governor. From 1912 a governorship was created. On the partition of India almost the whole of predominantly Muslim district of Sylhet was merged with East Bengal ( Pakistan, now Bangladesh ).
Dewangiri in North Kamrup was ceded to Bhutan in 1951. The Naga Hill district, administered by the union Government since 1957, became part of Nagaland in 1962. The State of Meghalays within Assam, Comprising the districts of Garo Hills and Khasoi and Jaintia Hills, came into existence on April 2, 1970 and achieved full statehood in January 1972 when it was decided to form a Union Territory of Mizoram from the Mizo Hill district. Mizoram became a State in 1987. The rest of the part remained as Assam.
About 74 percent of the State’s working force is engaged in Agriculture and Allied activities. More than 79 percent of the total cropped area is utilised for food crops production. Rice is the principal Food Crop. Jute, Tea, Cotton, Oilseeds, Sugarcane, Potato and Fruits are the main cash crops.
Forests account for 22.21 percent of the total area of the State. The State has five national parks and 11 wild life sanctuaries. The Kaziranga National Park and the Manas Tiger Project ( National Park ) are renowned internationally. Assam holds a unique position in respect of Mineral Oil production. Coal, Limestone, Refractory Clay, Dolomite and Natural Gas are the other minerals found in the State. Tea occupies an important place so far as Agriculture – Based Industries are concerned.
Assam has over 800 tea plantations and contributed about one – sixth of the world’s entire tea production. A substantial part of the country’s total petroleum output and natural gas is found in the State. The State has two oil refineries and the third with a petrochemical complex is being set – up. Besides a public sector fertilizer factory at Namrup, the industries located in the State are Sugar, Jute, Silk, Paper, Plywood Manufacture, Rice and Oil Milling. A polyester spinning mill has also been established at Nathkuchi village of Kamrup district.
The major power stations are : Chandrapur Thermal Project, Namrup Thermal Project, Karbi – Langpi Hydel – Electric Project and Lakwa Thermal Power Station.



History of Bihar State India :
Area : 94,163 sq km
Population : 8, 28,78,796; growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 28.43%
Density per sq km : 880
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 921
Literacy rate : 47.53% ( males : 60.32%; females : 33.57% )
Capital : Patna
No. of Districts : 37
Legislature : Bicameral
Principal Language : Hindi
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Place :
Araria, Arrah, Aurangabad, Begusarai, Bettiah, Bhagalpur, Bhimbandh ( pot water springs ), Biharsharif, Bodh Gaya ( most sacred Pilgrim place for Buddhists; Mahabodhi Temple; at the foot of the Bodhi tree here, Gautama Buddha attained Mahaparinivana and became the Enlightened One ), Chhapra, Darbhanga, Gaya ( centre of Pilgrimage for Hindus, Vishnupad Temple built by Queen Ahilya Bai of Indore on the banks of Falgu river, Temple of Sun God ).
Gopalganj, Hazipur, Jahanabad, Katihar, Khagaria, Kishanganj, Madhepura, Madhubani, Maner ( sacred Muslim shrines of Sufi saint Hazarat Makhdoom Shab ), Mothihari, Munger, Muzaffarpur, Nalanda ( ruins of the world’s earliest Buddhist university, Hiuen Tasang Studied at the University here in the 7th century ), Nawada, Parasnath ( Jain pilgrimage centre ), Nawada, Parasnath ( Jain pilgrimage center ).
Patna ( ancient city of Pataliputra and capital of Ashoke is the present capital of Bihar, City Museum, Gandhi maidan, Golghar, Kumrahar, Har Mandir [ one of the holiest Sikh shrines; built by Ranjit Singh, it marks the place where Gobind Singh, the 10th and the last of the Sikh Gurus, was born in 1660 ] ), Pawapuri ( where Lord Mahavira, the great preceptor of the Jains; was the Mahavira, the great preceptor of the Jains; was the Mahavira, the great preceptor of the Jains; was the capital of King Bimbisara in ancient times ).
Raxaul, saharsa, Sahibgani, Samastipur, Siwan, Soneput ( the largest annual cattle fair in India is held here ), Topchanchi ( scenic value ), Vaishali ( seat of the First Republic of the world in sixth century BC, birth place of Mahavira, one of the Jain thirthankars ), Vikramshila ( ruins of another Buddhist university ).
Judicature : High Court at Patna.
Location in Bihar : Located in north India, Bihar is bounded by Nepal in north, Jharkhand in south, West Bengal in cast and Uttar Pradesh in west.
Bihar History :
The ancient history of Bihar goes back to the Vedic age. Known in ancient days as Magadha, Bihar was the home state of the Mauryan emperors. Under Ashoka the Great, Magadha and its capital Pataliputra had become famous all over the world. It also played a prominent role in the history of medieval age – both the Sultanate of Delhi and the Mughals.
As the great Mughals declined, Bihar had passed into the hands of the Nawabs of Bengal. The British had wrested territory from the Nawabs of Bengal following the battle at Buxar ( Bihar ) in 1764. Under the British, Bihar was a part of Bengal Presidency. In 191, Bihar along with Orissa was separated from Presidency of Bengal. In 1936, Bihar and Orissa became separate Provinces.
Economy of Bihar India :
The main occupation of people is agriculture. Rice, wheat, maize, ragi and pulses are the principal food crops, while sugarcane, oilseeds, tobacco, potato and jute are the main cash crops of the State. In addition to agriculture, quite a large number of people are employed in industrial establishments.
It has cotton spinning mills, sugar mills, jute mills and leather industries. Bihar is also famous for production of tusser which is also famous than one. lakh persons. Cottage industries comprise of handicrafts. Madhubani paintings are known the world over.
The major power projects are :
Patratu Thermal power Station, Barruni Thermal Power Station, Muzaffarput Thermal Power Station, Subarnarckha Hydel power Station, Kosi Hydel; Power Station. Patna and Gaya have airports.


Chhattisgarh State

State of Chhattisgarh
Area : 1,36,034sq km
Population: 2,07,95,956; growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 18.06%
Density per sq km : 154
Sex ratio (females per 1,000 males): 990
Literacy rate : 65.18% ( males: 77.86%; females: 52.0% )
Capital : Raipur
No. of Districts : 16
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Language : Hindi
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places : Ambikapur ( Caves Built in Ancient Age ), Bilaspur, Durg ( Beautiful Forts ), Jagdalpur ( Wild Life Sanctuary ), Raigarh, Raipur, Rajnandgaon ( Buddhist Monuments ), Bhilai ( Steel Plant ) and Korba ( BALCO Plant ), Baikunthpur, Jashpur, Janjgir, Champa and Mahasamund ( Populous Towns ).
Judicature : High Court at Bilaspur.
Location : Chhattisgarh is bounded by southern Jharkhand and Orissa in the east, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa in the cast, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra in the West, Uttar Pradesh and western Jharkhand in the north and Andhra Pradesh in the south.

History : The new State of Chhattisgarh which came into being from November 1, 2000 as the State of the Union fulfills the hopes and aspirations of the tribal People for which the Constitution centrists the State to promote with special care the State to promote with special care their Educational and Economic Interests ( Article 46 – Directive Principles of State Policy ). It fulfills the long cherished demand of these people which was not acceded to by the State Reorganization Commission in 1956 and continued to be put forward by the people under various bodies like Chhattisgarh Bhartir Sangh, Chhattisgarh Asmita Sangthan from time to time.
Economy : About 46% of the total area in the State is covered with thick forests. The rest is largely rocky leaving little scope for Agricultural Land. The State is, however, Rich in Mineral Resources. Copper, Coal; Iron, Lime Stone, Manganese are abundant. In Raipur District, a huge reserve of diamonds has been discovered which can yield a revenue of nearly rupees Two Thousand Crores Annually. Tendu leaves, Chironji, Harar, Baheda, Mahu flower and sal seed are some of the forest produce yielding an annual income of nearly 217 cores. The prominent industrial units are at Bhilai ( Steel Plant ) and Korba ( BALCO plant ).


Goa is a Island
Area : 3.702 sq km
Population : 13,43,998;growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 14.89%
Density per sq km : 363
Sex ratio ( Females per 1,000 Males ) : 960
Literacy rate : 82.32% ( males: 88.88%; females : 75.51% )
Capital : Panaji
No. of Districts : 2
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Languages : Marathi and Konkani
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places :
Aguada, Anjuna and Miramar ( Loveliest Beaches ), Baga, Benaulim, Bondla, Calangute, Chapora and Cabo de Rama Forts, Chorao ( Dr. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary ), Cotigao and Molen ( Wildlife Santuaries ), Colva, Dabolim, Dauna, Dudhsagar and Harvalem ( Waterfalls ), Harmal, Kavalem, Mardol, Old Goa ( Basilica of Bom Jesus and se Cathedral churches, Viceroy’s Arch, Gate of Adil Shab’s Palace ), Mangusehi and Bandora temples, Margao, Marmugao, Mayem ( Lake Resort ), Panaji, Terekhol, Vasco da Gama, Vagator.
Judicature : The State comes under the jurisdiction of Bombay High Court. A new District Court, South Goa, has been constituted. A bench of Bombay High Court in Goa has been set up at Panaji.
Location : Goa is Bounded on the North by Maharashtra and on the East and South by Karnataka and has a coastline of 105 km, opening upto Arabian Sea in the West.
History :
Goa was captured for Portugal by Afonso de. Albuquerque in 1510 to Which Daman and Diu were added later. It was liberated from Portuguese yoke on December 19,1961 and the territories incorporated into the Indian Union. For over 25 years, Goa, Daman and Diu were a Union Territory what it became the 25th State in the Country on May 30,1987. the overland districts of Daman and Diu were delinked from Goa and are now a Union Territory.
The important rivers : Mandovi, Zuari, Tiracol, Chapora and Betul which are navigable for a total length of 256 km.
Economy :
Rice is the Principal food crop. Pulses and Ragi are also grown. Groundnut, Maize, Jowar and Bajra are grown in small quantities. The important Cash Crops are Sugarcane, Coconut, Cashewnut, Arecanut and Fruits like Pineapple, Mango and Banana. Forests cover about 29 percent of the total area of the State. Iron Ore, Manganese, Ferro – Manganese, Bauxite and Silica sand are the minerals found in Goa. Mining industry is very important for the economy of the State.
The small – scale industries include bakeries, Printing Presses, Sawmills, Tyre retreading units, Fruit and fish canning, Cashjewnut Processing, Mosaic Tiles, Soap Manufacture, Furniture, Typewriter Ribbons, Carbon Paper, Automobile Batteries, Acrylic Sheet Polythene Bags, Sodium Silicate, Fishing Nets, Zip Fasteners, Stoves, Footwears, Spectacle Frames. Chemicals, Stainless Steel Wares, etc. Panaji and Mormugao are the two main ports, while Dabolim is the only airport in the State.


Information about Gujarat State :
Area : 1.96.025 sq km

Population : 5,05,96,992; growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 22.48%
Density per sq km : 258
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 921
Literacy rate : 69.97% ( males : 80.50%; females : 58.60% )
Capital : Gandhinagar
No. of Districts : 25
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Language : Gujarati
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places :
Ambaji ( religious Place ), Ahmedabad-situated on the river Sabarmati ( Jami Masjid, Teen Darwaza, Bhadra Fort, Tomb of Ahmed Shab Abdali, Shaking Minarets, Hathee Singh Temple, Kankaria Lake, Sabarmati Ashram ); Amreli, Banaskantha, Bharuch ( Broach ), Bhadreshwar ( religious place ), Bhavnagar, Bhuj, Cambay ( Old sea port of Ahmedabad ), Dang, Dwarka ( Hindu religious place and closely related to Krishan ) Girnar ( religious Place ); gandhinagar ( the capital city ), Godhra, Himatnagar, Jamnagar ( Princely state of Jadeja Rajputs prior to Independence, Junagadh ( temple – studded Girnar Hill, departure point for visit to Gir Forest, Uparkot Fort, Mahabat Maqbara ), Karwar ( port and beach ), Kheda, Kutch ( wild ass sanctuary ), lothal ( related to Indus Valley sites of Mohenjodaro and Harappa ( both in pakistan ), Mehsana, Modhera ( Sun Temple built by king Bhimdev I ), Panchmahals, Palanpur, Palitana ( religious Place ), Patan ( ancient Hindi capital before being sacked by mahmud of Ghazni ), Pavagadh ( religious place ), Porbandar ( birth place of Mahatma Gandhi ), Rajkot ( once capital of Saurashtra ), sasan ( GIr Lion Sanctuary ), Sabarkantha, Satpura ( bill station ), Shamlaji ( religious Place), Somnath ( religious place, famous for somnath Temple built of gold by Somraj, the moon God himself, also associated with Rawana, Krishna, Bhimdev, Mahmud of Ghazni was an unwelcome visitor who descended from his Afghan kingdom and looted the fabulous from his Afghan kingdom and looted the fabulous wealth and destroyed the temple ), surat ( on the banks of river Tapti ), Surendranagar, Taranga ( religious place ), Vadodara ( Baroda ) ( former capital of Princely Gaekwad state, Sayaji Bagh, Baroda Museum, Maharaja Fatehsinh Museum, Laxmi Vilas Palace ), Valsad, Veraval ( was major seaport for Mecca Pilgrims ).

Judicature : High Court at Ahmedabad
Important Locations in Gujarat State :
Located in western India, Gujarat is bounded north by Pakistan and Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh in the east, Maharashtra in the southeast and Arabian Sea in the west.
History of Gujarat State :
The history of Gujarat is legendary. It is believed that Lord Krishna left Mathura to settle at Dwarka, now in Gujarat. It was always prominent in both the ancient and medieval periods of history.
During the British rule and after independence, it remained part and parcel of the Bombay Presidency when on May 1, 1960, as a result of the Bombay Reorganization Act, 1960,as a result of the Bombay Reorganization Act, 1960, the State of Gujarat was formed from the north and west ( predominantly Gujarati – speaking ) portion of Bombay State, the remainder being renamed the State of Maharashtra.
Gujarat consists of the following districts of the former State of Bombay :
Banaskantha, Mehsana, Sabarkantha, Ahmedabad, Kheda, Panch Mahals, Vadodara, Bharuch, Surqat6, Dangs, Amreli, Bhavangar, Kachch, Gandhinagar and Valsad.
Gujarat State Economy :
Gujarat is the main producer of tobacco, cotton and groundnut. The other cash crops are isabgol, sugarcane, mangoes and bananas. Bajra, jowar, maize, rice and wheat are the main food crops. Forests cover 10 percent of the area of the State which produce khair and sadad. Gujarat is recognised as one of the leading industrialised States in the Country.
The important industries of Gujarat are textiles, inorganic chemicals such as caustic soda and soda, Petro-chemicals, drugs and pharmaceuticals, electronic and electrical goods, machine tools, cement, sugar, oil and natural gas. The Sardar Sarovar ( Narmada ) Project has the tremendous irrigation potential.
The main airport : Ahmedabad which has got the status of an international airport. Besides 40 ports, Kandla is the major port which occupies a leading position in the country.


Haryana State India

Area : 44, 212 sq km
Population : 2,10,82,989; growth rate (1991- 2001): 28.06%
Density per sq km : 477
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 861
Literacy rate : 68.59% ( males : 79.25%; females : 56.31% )
Capital : Chandigarh
No. of Districts : 19
Legislature : Unicameral
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places :
Ambal Bhiwani, Faridabad, Kurukshetra, Mahendragarh, Narnaul, Panipat, Rewari, Rohtak, Sirsa, Sonepat. There are 46 tourist complexes in Haryana, majority of them named after birds.
Some of the tourist complexes are :
Badkhal Lake, Dabchick ( Hodal ), Jungle Babble ( Dharuhera ), Karna Lake ( Uchana ), Kela Teetar ( Abushehr ), Kingfisher ( Ambala ), Parakeet ( Piplikurukshetra ), Magpic ( Faridabad ), Rajhans ( Surajkund ), Rosy Pelican ( Sultanpur ), Skylark ( Panipat ), Sohna, Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary ( Sultanpur ), Surajkund, Uchana ( Karnal ), Yaduvindra Garden ( Pinjore ).
Judicature :
Shares the High is bounded by Uttar Pradesh and Delhi in the cast, Punjab and Himachal Pradesh in the north and Rajasthan in the south and the west.
History :
Haryana has a legendary history going back to the Vedic Age. Kurukshetra was the epic battle field between the Kauravas and the Pandavas in Mahabharata. During medieval ages, many historic battles were fought in the modern Haryana. The region played a prominent role in the First Was of Indian Independence. Nearly 20 years after Independence, the State of Haryana, was formed on November 1, 1966 under the Punjab Reorgansation Act, 1966, from the Hindi-speaking parts of the State of Punjab comprising of the districts of Hissar, Mahendragarh, Gurgaon, Rohtak and Karnal; parts of Sangrur and Ambala districts; and part of Kharar tehsil.

Economy :
Agriculture is the main profession for over 80 percent of the people of Haryana. Over 51 percent of the total cultivable area is under irrigation. The important crops are cotton, rice, wheat, maize and bajra. Haryana is not only self-sufficient in food grains production but also among the top contributors of food grains to the Central pool.
Limestone, slate, dolomite, building stone, road metals, china clay and marble are some of the important minerals found in Haryana. Graphite and quartzites have also been found at several places in the State. Cement, sugar, paper, cotton textiles, glassware, brassware, cycle, tractors, motorcycle.
Time – pieces, automobiles, tyres and tubes, sanitaryware, television sets, steel tubes, hand tools, cotton yarn, refrigerators, vanaspati ghee and canvas shoes are some of the major industries of Haryana. Panipat is known as ‘Weavers City’ of India for its exquisite hand tufted woollen carpets of colourful handloom products. Haryana shares the multipurpose project on Sutlej and Beas with Punjab.
The major irrigation projects are : Western Yamuna Canal, Bhakra Canal System and Gurgaon Canal System.

                                                                          Himachal Pradesh

Himachal Pradesh Hill Stations History
Area : 55,673 sq km
Population : 60,70,305 ( Provisional ); growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 17.53%
Density per sq km : 109
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 970
Literacy rate: 77.13% ( males: 86.02%; females : 68.08% )
Capital : Shimla
No. of Districts : 12
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Languages : Hindi and Pahari
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places :
Baijnath, Bhakar – Nangal, Bilaspur, Chail, Chamba, Chandwick Falls, Chintpurni, Craignano, Dalhousie, Dharamsala, Hamirpur, Jwalamukhi, Jogindernagar, Kalpa, Kangra Valley, Kasauli, Keylong, Kufri, Kulu, Lahaul Valley, Kasauli, Keylong, Kufri, Kulu, Lahaul Valley, Mahasu, Manali, Mandi, Mashobra, Nahan, Naldera, Narkanda, Palanpur, Pangi Valley, Paonta Sahib, Parvati Valley, Phagu, Shimla, Prospect Hill, Rewalsar Lake, Solan, Spiti Valley, Summer Hill, Rewalsar Lake, Solan, Spiti Valley, Summer Hill, Tara Devi, Una, Wild Flower Hall are health resorts.
Temples at Chamunda Devi. Chintpurni Devi, Jakhu, Jwalajee. Naina Devi. Renuka and Rewalsar Deoth Siddh are pilgrimage centres. Ski courses are held at Narkanda. Museum – cum – art gallery in Naggar and Dharamsala. Tourist resort of Khajjair in Chamba district has been christened as the Switzerland of Himachal Pradesh.
Judicature : High court at Shimla.
Location : Himachal Pradesh is bounded north by Jammu and Kashmir, South by Uttaranchal and Uttar anchal and Uttar Pradesh, Tiber ( China ) in the east and Punjab in the west.
History :
Himachal Pradesh came into being on April 15, 9148 and comprised 30 former hill States. The State of Bilaspur was merged with Himachal Pradesh in 1954. The six original districts were: Mahasu, Sirmur, Mandi, Chamba, Bilaspur and Kinnaur.
On November 1,1966 under the Punjab Reorganisation Act, 1966 certain parts of the State of Punjab were transferred to Himachal Pradesh. These comprise the districts of Shimla, Kulu, Kangra and Lahaul and Spiti, and parts of Hoshiarpur and Ambala districts. Himachal Pradesh attained full statehood on January 25, 1971 as the 18th State of the Union.
Economy :
Agriculture and horticulture are the mainstay of Himachal Pradesh. About 76 percent of the total working population is engaged in these occupations. Fruits and Cash Crops, like Seed Potatoes, Ginger, Vegetable Seeds, Apples, Stone Fruits, etc. are grown in the State. Wheat, Maize and Rice are the major Food Crops.
Besides Apples, excellent variety of Plums, Peaches and Apricots is also grown. Forests cover 64 percent of the area of the State. Rock Salt, Slate, Gypsum, Limestone, Barytes, Dolomite and Pyrites are the important minerals of Himachal Pradesh.
Agro – Horticulture Produce, Herbal Resources, Wool, Sericulture and Electronics Industries have come up in Himachal Pradesh. There is also a brewery at Solan in the Private sector, also a brewery at Solan in the private sector, as also two big cement plants. One of the biggest fruit processing Plants in Asia in operation at Parwanoo. New power projects viz., Chamera II, Parbati Hydel Power Project and Kol Dam also being harnessed.



History of Mizoram State
Area : 21,081 sq km
Population : 8,91,058;growth rate ( 19911 – 2001 ) : 29.18%
Density per sq km : 42
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) 938
Literacy rate : 88.49% ( males : 90.60%; females : 86.13% )
Capital : Aizawl
No. of Districts : 8
Principal Languages : Mizo and English
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places :
Aizawl hilly city ( religious and cultural centre of Mizo ), Champhai ( beautiful resort on the Myanmar border ), Chhimtuipui, Lunglei, Saiha, Situal Forest around ), Wantawng Fall ( near hill station of Thenzawl ).
Legislature : Unicameral
Judicature : Mizoram comes under the jurisdiction of Guwahati High Court and has a Bench at Aizawl.
Location : One of the eastern – most States, Mizoram lies between Bangladesh and Myanmar ( Burma ). Tripura, Assam and Manipur border is on the north.
History : The Lushai Hills, sandwiched between Burma in the cast and south and Bangladesh in the west, was christened Mizoram when it became a Union Territory in 1972. By a Constitutional Amendment in 1986, the Union Government decided to confer full Statehood on Mizoram, which became the 23rd State of the Indian Union with effect from February 20, 11987.
Economy :
Agriculture is the mainstay for about 60 percent of the population of Mizoram. Only 5 percent of the total area is under cultivation. About 7 percent of the total cultivated area is under irrigation. Maize and paddy are cultivated in the h9ill slopes.
Pulses, Sugarcanes, Chillies, Ginger, Tobacco, Vegetables, Turmeric Potato, Banana and Pineapple are the other crops grown in the State. Forests account for nearly 21 percent of the area. Mizoram has no major industry.
The cottage industries comprise of handloom and handicrafts. In the small scale sector are the Rice Milling, Oil and Flour Milling, Mechanised Bamboo Workshops, Saw Milling, Brick Making and Furniture Workshops.

                                                                      Jammu & Kashmir

News about Jammu and Kashmir :

Area : 2,22,236 sq km
Population : 1,00,69,917; growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 29.04%
Density per sq km : 99
Sex ratio ( females per 1, 000 males ) : 900
Literacy rate : 54.46% ( males : 65.75%; females : 41.82% )
Capital : Srinagar ( Summer ), Jammu ( Winter )
No. of Districts : 14
Legislature : Bicameral
Principal Languages : Kashmiri, Dogri, Gujri, Punjabi, Urdu, Dalti, Dadri, Pahari and Ladakhi
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places : Anantnag, Baramula, Chilas, Doda, Gilgit, Gilgit Wazarat, Gulmarg, Jammu, Kargil, Kathua, Kokarnag, Kupwara, Leh, Mirpur, Muzaffarabad, Pahalgam, Patnitop, Phulwara, Punch, Rajauri, Riasi, Sonamarg, Srinagar-Venice of the Orient ( Achabal Gardens, Chashma Shahi Springs, Dal Lake, Manasbal Lake, Nishat Bagh, Shalimar Bagh, Hazrathal Mosque, Nagina Lake, Hari Parbat Fort, Sonmarg ), Udhampur, Verinag, Yusmarg. Other places of historical importance are Vaishno Devi Temple, Martand Temple, Pandrenthan Temple, Martand Temple, Pandrenthan Temple, Martand Temple, Pandrenthan temple, avanti Puri, Pari Mahal and shankaracharya Hill. Amarnath, 45 km from Pahalgam, is known for the sacred cave and ice lingam symbol of Lord Shiva at a height of about 3,880 metres.

Judicature : High Court at Srinagar and Jammu.
Locations of Jammu and Kashmir : Located in the extreme north, the State is bounded north by China, east by Tibet ( China ), South by Himachal Pradesh and Punjab and west by Pakistan.
Jammu and Kashmir History :
Kashmir is known as paradise on earth and has a legendary history going back to the epic age. The fourth Buddhist council during the reign of Kanishka was held here. In modern history, it was annexed to the Sikh kingdom of Punjab in 1819. In 1820, Ranjit singh made over the territory of Jammu to Gulab singh.
After the decisive battle of Sabraon in 1846, Kashmir was also made over to Gulab Singh under the Treaty of Amritsar5. British supremacy was recognised until the Indian Independence Act, 1947, when all States decided on accession to India or Pakistan.
Kashmir asked for standstill agreements with both. Pakistan agreed but India desired further discussion with the government of Jammu and Kashmir State.
In the meantime, the State became subject to armed attack from the territory of India on October 26, 1947 by signing the Instrument of Accession. Jammu & Kashmir is, thus, an integral part of the Indian union, notwithstanding that out of the area of 2,22,236 sq km, 78,114 sq km is under illegal occupation of Pakistan to China and 37,555 sq km is under illegal occupation of China.
Economy of Jammu and Kashmir :
About 80 percent of the people of the State are dependent on agriculture. Paddy, maize and wheat are the main crops. Gram, Bajra, jowar and barley are the main crops. Horticulture has made considerable progress in recent years. The State produces fruits and their exports have shown a remarkable increase over the years.
The State has a forest area of 21,000 sq km, comprising over 15 percent of the total geographical area, excluding vast barrenness of Ladakh. Kashmir handicrafts are famous for excellence and are good foreign exchange corners.
There are a large number of cottage industries and small – scale industrial units engaged in carpet and shawl making, engraved carpentry and handicrafts.
The Future Power Projects of the State are : Salal Project, Duhlasti Project, Uri Project and Baghliar Project.


Jharkhand State India

State of India Jharkhand
Area : 79,714 sq km
Population : 2,69,428; growth rate (1991-2001) : 23.19%
Density per sq km : 338
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 941
Literacy rate : 54.13% ( males : 67,94%; females : 39.38% )
Capital : Bicameral
Principal Language : Hindi
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places :
Bokaro, Jamshedpur ( steel city ), Chaibasa, Deoghar, Dumka ( centres of Pilgrimage ), Betla ( Palamu National Park ), Hazaribagh ( wildlife reserve ), Giridih, Godda, Gumla ( hill resort ), Singhbhum, Daltonganj ( Populous town ).
Judicature : High Court at Ranchi.
Location :
Jharkhand is bounded by west Bengal in the west, Bihar in north and Orissa in south.
History :
Jharkha which came into being on November 15, 2000 is the homeland of the trial’s for which they had been dreaming for centuries. A tradition goes that Raja Jai Singh Deo of Orissa had declared himself the ruler of Jharkhand in the 13th century. It largely comprises of forest tracks of Chhotanagpur plateau and Santhal Pargana and has distinct cultural traditions.
In post – Independence car, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha led by Santhal leader Shibu Soren started a regular agitation which impelled the government to establish the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council in 1995 and finally a full-fledged state on November 15,2000.
Economy :
The State is abundantly rich in minerals – Copper, Coal, Iron, Manganese, Mica, Chromite, Bauxite, etc. Reserves of Gold and Silver have also been found in the State. It has country’s two biggest steel plants at Bokaro in the public sector and Tata Iron and Steel Co.
( TISCO ) in Jamshedpur in the Private sector. Other important industries are Shriram Bearings, Usha Martin, Indo – Ashahi Glass, Indian Tube Company, etc. The State has the Potential of becoming one of the most Prosperous States of India if all its mineral resources are fully harnessed.


History of Karnataka State
Area : 1,91,791 sq km
Population: 5,7,33,958; growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 17.25%
Density per sq km : 275
Sex ratio (females per 1,000 males) : 964
Literacy rate: 67,04% ( males : 76,29%; females : 57.45% )
Capital : Bangalore
No. of Districts : 27
Legislature : Bicameral
Principal language : Kannada
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places :
Badami ( later captial of Chalukyas, famous for rock – cut temples ), Bandipur ( Wildlife Sanctuary ), Bangalore ( Vidhana Soudha, Cubbon Park, Chamaraja Sagar, Lalbagh Botanical Gardens, Fort, Tipu Sultan’s Place, Bull Temple, Nandi Summer Resort ), Belgaum ( Fort, Gokak Falls ), Bellary, Belur ( Chenna Kesava Temple ), Bhadravati, Bidar, Bijapur ( known for Gol Gumbaz, Ibrahim Roza, Asar Mahal, Upli Buruj, Anand Mahal, Mecca Masjid ), Chikmagalur, chitradurga, Devangere, Dharward, Gulbarga, Halebid ( Joyasaleswara and Kedareswar5a Temples ), Hampi ( ruins of Vijayanagar empire ), Hassan, Hubli, Jog Falls ( Gersoppa Falls ), Karwar ( Port and beach ), Kolar Gold Fields, Madikeri, Mandya, Mangalore ( Port and beach ), Mysore ( known as “Garden City” is famous for Brindavan Gardens and Dussehra Festivities, Chamundi Hills, Maharaja’s Place ), Raichur, Ranganathittoo ( bird sanctuary ), Shimoga, Shravanbelagola ( famous for Gomatesbwara statue and pilgrinmage centre for Jains ), Somanathapura, Sringeri, Srirangapatnam ( capital of Tipu ), Tumkur, Tungabhadra Dam.
Badami, Aihole and Pattadkal are known for rock – cut and structural temples. Gokarna, Udupi, Dharmasthala, Melkote, Gangapura and Saundatti are famous Pilgrimage centres.
Judicature : High court at Bangalore.
Location : Located in south India, Karnataka is bounded north by Maharashtra, east by Andhra Pradesh, south by Tamil Nadu and Kerala, West by the Arabian Sea.

History : Karnataka has a glorious heritage of over two thousand years. The great Vijaynagar Empire and the Bhamani Kingdoms flourished here in medieval age. In the modern history, the great Tipu Sultan of Mysore under the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, brought together the Kannada – speaking people distributed in five State of Mysore and coorg, the Bijapur, Kanara and Dharwar districts and the Belgaum district ( except one taluk ) in former Bombay, the major portions of the Gulbarga, Raichur and Bidar districts in former Hyderabad, Raichur and South Kanara district ( apart from the Kasaragod taluk ) and the Kollegal taluk of the Coimbatore district in Madras. Earlier known as Mysore, the State was renamed Karnataka in 1973.
Economy : Karnataka is Predominantly agricultural. About 65 percent of the working population is engaged in agriculture and allied activities which generate about 49 percent of the State’s Income. Out of the total land area of the State the net area sown forms 56 percent.
About 22 percent of the total cultivated area is under irrigation. Rice, Ragi, Jowar, Wheat, Millets and Pulses are the major food crops of Karnataka. Sugarcane, Cotton, Oilseeds, Mulberry, Tobacco, Coconut, Arecant, Coffee, Cashew, Cardamom, Pepper, Oranges and Grapes are the main cash crops.
Forests occupy 20 percent of the area of the State. Karnataka State is rich in mineral resources. High grade Iron Ore, Copper, Manganese, Chromite and China Clay are the important minerals available in the State. Karnataka is the only State where gold mining is carried on. The large industries manufacture Machine Tools, Aircraft, Electronic Products, Watches and Telecommunication equipment. Other Flourishing Industries of Karnataka are Textiles, Sugar, Soap, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Goods, Fertilizer, Paper, Cement.

Glass, Ceramics, Porcelain and Electrical goods. Important public sector undertaking are Bharat Heavy Electrical, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Hindustan Machine Tools, etc. Kudremukh Iron Ore Project at Malleswaram in Chikamagalur District is a Major development the project of the State.
Karnataka stands first in the production of Raw Silk accounting for about 85 percent of the raw silk produced in the country. Sandal Soap and Sandal Oil of Karnataka are well known in world markets. Karnataka also stands first in the production of Electronic Equipments. In fact, Bangalore is known as the “Electronic City of India”.
Karnataka is the first State in the country to have generated electricity in Gokak Falls in 1887.
The important power projects are : Kalinadi, Varahi, Gerusoppa ( Sharavathi ) and Shivasamudaram Hydro Electric Projects. A thermal power station is located at Raichur and another diesel unit at Yelahanka near Ban galore. An atomic power plant is also being installed at Kaiga near Karwar.
Important seaport : New Mangalore
Important airports : Bangalore, Belgaum and Mangalore.


Details of Kerala State

Kerala State India History :
Area : 38,863 sq km
Population : 3,18,38,6119; growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 9.42%
Density per sq km : 819
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 1,058
Literacy rate : 90.92% ( males: 94.20% females: 87.86% )
Capital : Thiruvananthapuram
No. of Districts : 13
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Language : Malayalam
Important Cities, Towns, and Religious / Tourist Places :
Alleppey ( sandy beach ), Alwaye, Calicut ( also called Kozhikode, was capital of Zamorin Rajas; Vasco da Gama landed here in 1498 AD ), Cannanore ( was capital of Kolathiri Raja ), Choruthuruthi ( famous poet and scholar Vallathol set up “Kerala Kalamanalam” here for revival of kerala are Forms ), Cranganore ( was capital ofcheraman Perumal, king of Kerala ), Ernakulam, Guruvayoor ( famous for ancient shrine of Lord Krishna), Idukki ( hydro – electric Project ), Kaladi ( birth Place of Adi Sankaracharya, great Indian philosopher of 8th century ), Kalpetta, Kasaragod ( fort Projecting on to the sea), Kochi ( earlier name Cochin, known as the Queen of the Arabian Sea ), Kodanad ( tourist place for trapping and taming wild elephants ), Kottayam ( main commercial centre ), Kovalam ( sea – side resort ), Kozhikode, Malampuzha ( picturesque surroundings and river project ).

Malappuram, Munnar ( highest town of kerala ), Neyyar Dam ( famous for scenic beauty ), Palakkad, painavu Pathanamthitta, Periyar ( wild life sanctuary ) located near Thekkadi ), ponmudi ( famous bill station ), quilon, Thiruvananthapuram ( earlier name Trivandrum, known for Padmanabaswami temple, Veli lagoon at the outskirts ), Trichur.
Judicature : High Court at Erankulam.
Location : Located in south India, Kerala is bounded north by Karnataka, cast and southeast by Tamil Nadu, south – west by the Indian Ocean and the Arabian Sea in the west.
Kerala State History :
The State of kerala, created under the states Reorganization Act, 1956, consists of the previous State of Travancore – Cochin, expert for four taluks of the Trivandrumdistrict and a part of the Shencottah taluk of Quilon district. It took over the Malabar district and the Kasaragod taluk of South from Madras state.
Kerala State Economy :
Nearly 50 percent of the population of kerala is dependent on agriculture for their livelihood. About 13 percent of the total cropped area is under irrigation. Cashewnut, arecanut, cocount, cotton, tea, cocoa, ginger and cardamom are the main cash crops of kerala. Rice and tapioca are important food crops. Forests account for 24 percent of the area of the State.
Ilmenite, rutile, monazite, zircon, sillimanite and clay, quartz sand and lime shell are the important minerals of the State. Coir, cashew, rubber, tea, ceramics, electrical and electronic appliances, telephone cables, transformers, bricks and tiles, drugs and chemicals, general engineering, plywood, splints veneers, beedi and cigar, soaps, oils and fertilizers are the important industries of kerala.
The new industries include precision instruments, machine tools. Petroleum and petroleum products, fertilizers and allied products, paints, aluminum, communication cables, rubber, rayon, pulp, paper, scooter, glass and nonferrous metals. The principal export products are cashew nuts, tea. coffee, paper and other spices, lemongrass oil, seafood’s, rosewood, coir and coir products.
The important power projects are: Panniyar, Sholayar, Sabarigiri, Sengulam, Peringalkuth, Neriamangalam, Idukki, Pallivasal, Edamalayar and Kuttiadi.
Seaport : Kochi is the major seaport.
Kerala State Airports : Thiruvananthapuram, Kochi and Kozhikode. Out of them, the first two are international airports.

                                                              Madhya Pradesh

Madhya Pradesh state India
Area : 3,08,000 sq km
Population : 6,03,85,118; growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 24.34%
Density per sq km : 196
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 920
Literacy rate : 64.11% ( males : 76,80%; females : 50.28% )
Capital : Bhopal
No. of Districts : 45
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Language : Hindi
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places : Bagh ( fifth to seventh century AD caves ), Balaghat, Betul, Bhind, Bhopal ( lake – side State capital city ), Burhanpur, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Damoh, Datia, Dewas, Dhar, Guna, Gwalior ( beautiful forts ), Hoshangabad, Indore ( associated with Ahilya Bai ), Jabalpur ( famous For marble rocks ), Jhabua, Katnim Khjuarho ( once the capital of Chandella rulers, embodiment of the great artistic activity of the 9th to 12th century AD ), Khandwa, Khargone, Mandla, Mandsaur, Mandu ( deserted capital ), Morena, Narsimhapur, Pachmarhi ( hill resort ),Panna, Raisen, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Sagar, Rewa, Sanchi ( known for Great Stupa and ancient Buddhist Monuments ), Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shahdol, Shajapur, Shivpuri, Tikamgarh, Ujjain ( oldest and holiest city of Parmar kings, also associated with Ashoka, Guptas and Vikramaditya ), Vidisha.
Judicature : High Court at Jabalpur ( with benches at Gwalior and Indore ).
Location :
Madhya Pradesh is bounded by Chhattisgarh in the east, Rajasthan and Gujarat in the west, Uttar Pradesh in the north and Maharashtra in the south.
History :
Under the provisions of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the State of Madhya Pradesh was formed on November 1, 1956. It consists of the 17 Hindi districts of the previous State of that name, the former state of Madhya Bart ( except the Sunel enclave of Mandsaur district ), the former State of Bhopal and Vindhya Pradesh and Sironj subdivision of Kota district, which was an enclave of Rajasthan in Madhya Pradesh.
Economy :
The economy of Madhya Pradesh is primarily agriculture based. Nearly 80 percent of the population lives in villages. About 44 percent of land area is cultivable, of which nearly 17.51 percent is under irrigation. The irrigation is done through both Canals and Wells. Jowar, Wheat, Rich and Gram are the main food crops. Oilseeds, Pulses, Soyabeam, Cotton and Sugarcane are the main commercial crops.
The State is industrially well – developed. The prominent industrial units in the public sector are Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited – Bhopal, Bank Note Press – Dewas, Security Paper Mills at Hoshangabad.
Other industries of Madhya Pradesh include Potteries, Sugar Mills, Straw Board Mills, Refractories, Textile Machinery, Synthetics and Drugs, Biscuit Manufacturing, Engineering Tools, Mini Steel Plants, Rayon and Art Silk. Handloom weaved at Chandlery and Mahesh war are famous.


Maharashtra State India

Details of Maharashtra State :
Area : 3,07,713 sq km
Population : 9,67,52,247; growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 22.57%
Density per sq km : 314
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 922
Literacy Rate : 77.27% ( males : 86.27%; females : 67.51% )
Capital : Mumbai
No. of Districts : 35
Legislature : Bicameral
Principal Language : Marathi
Important Cities, Town and Religious / Tourist Places :
Ajanta and Ellora ( tourist centres ), Ahmednagar, Akola, Alibag, Amravati, Aundhanagnath ( religious place ), Aurangabad, Bhandara, Beed, Buldana, Chandrapur, Dhule, Gadchiroli, Ganapatipule ( religious place ), Jalgaon, Jaina, Kanheri ( tourist center ) Karala caves, Kolhapur, Kudal, Latur, Lonavla ( hill station ), Matheran ( hill station ).

Mumbai ( earlier name Bombay, India’s large commercial centre, Gateway of India, Chowpatty, Marine Drive, Malabar Hill,Prince of Wales Museum, Jubu Beach, Elephanta Caves dedicated to Lord Shiva ), Nagpur, Nanded ( religious place ), Nasik ( religious place ), Osmanabad, Panchangani ( hill station )., Pandharpur ( religious place ), Sangli, Satara, Sevargam ( Mahatma Gandhi’s ashram), Shirdi ( pilgrimage place for followers of Shri Sai Baba ), Sholapur, Tadobal National Park ( wildlife Sanctuary ), Thane, Trimbakeshwar ( religious place ), Tulajpur ( religious place ), Wardha, Yavatmal.
Judicature : High Court at Mumbai ( having benches at Nagpur, Panaji and Aurangabad ).
Location : Located in central India, Maharashtra is bounded north by Madhya Pradesh, East by Chhattisgarh, South by Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Goa, west by the Arabian Sea and north-west by Daman and Gujarat.
Maharashtra History :
Under the State Reorganisation Act, 1956, Bombay State was formed by merging the States of Kutch and Saurashtra and the Marathi-speaking areas of Hyderabad ( commonly known as Marathwada ) and Madhya Pradesh ( also called Vidarbha ) in the old State of Mumbai, after the transfer from that state of the Kannada – speaking areas of the Belgum, Bijapur, Kanara and Dharwar districts which were added to the state of Mysore ( now Karnataka, and the Abu Road taluka of Banaskantha district, which to the State of Rajasthan ).
By the Bombay Reorganisation Act, 1960, which came into force from May 1, 1960,17 districts ( predominantly Gujarati – speaking ) in the north and west of Mumbai State became the new State of Gujarat and the remainder was renamed Maharashtra.

Maharashtra Economy :
About 61 percent of the population of Maharashtra is dependent on Agriculture for its livelihood. Wheat, rice,jowar, maize, bajra and pulses are the min food crops. Cotton, Sugarcane, groundnut and tobacco are the principal cash crops.
The State has also about 11 lakh hectares under various fruit crops like mango, banana, orange, grapes and cashew nut.
Forests account for about 27 percent of the total area of the state. Industry plays a prominent role in the economy of the state. Iron ore, coal, manganese ore, bauxite and limestone are the important mineral deposits.
The large industries include textiles, ginning and pressing, silk, rayon, synthetic fabrics and vegetable products. Mumbai is the centre of most of the textile mills. The new industrial centres of Maharashtra are in Nasik, Aurangabad, Nagpur, Roha, Tarapur and Ahmednagar. Maharashtra is also a major sugar producing state.
Nitrogenous fertilizers, super phosphates, petrochemicals, drugs and pharmaceuticals, and photographic chemicals are the important chemical industries.
Emergence of oil fields at Mumbai High and Bassein North and the new fertiliser unit at ThalVaishet near Alibag have given further boost to the petrochemical industry in the State. Marine industries and fish processing units in the coastal area of the State have also been developed. Maharashtra leads in the motion picture industry.

It also leads in sophisticated electronics equipment. A number of defence and public sector industries are located in the State. Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru Port ( Nhave Sheva ) are the major ports. Besides, there are 49 minor ports in the state. The major airports are Mumbai, Pune, Aurangabad, Nasik and Nagpur.


Manipur State Details

History of Manipur India :
Area : 22,327 sq km

Population ( 2001 census ) : 23,88,634; growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 30.02%
Density per sq km : 978
Literacy rate : 68.87% ( males : 77.87%; females : 59.70% )
Capital : Impale
No. of Districts : 9
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Language : Manipuri
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places :
Bishnupur, Chandel, Churachandpur ( beautiful place inhabited by Kuki tribe ), Imphal ( Shri Govindajee Temple, War cemetries, Loktak Lake ), Kaina, Keibul, khongiom, Lamjao ( wildlife sanctuary ), Khongamat ( orchid yard ), Mao ( hill station ), Moirang ( known for the old love story of Khumba and Thoibi ), Moreh ( border town on IndoMyanmar road ), Phubala, Senapati, Sendra, Tamenglong, Thoubal, Ukhrul, Waithou Lake.
Manipur Judicature :
Manipur comes under the jurisdiction of Guwahati High Court. A circuit bench has been provided at Imphal.
Location in Manipur :
Located in northeast India, Manipur is founded north by Nagaland, east by Myanmar ( Burma ), south by Myanmar ( Burma ) and Mizoram, and west by Assam.
History of Manipur :
A princely State for nearly two thousand year, Manipur came under the British rule only in 1891. On attainment of independence, it became a C State in 1949 and a full – fledged State of the Indian union in 1972.
Manipur Economy :
The main occupation of 66 percent of the population of Manipur is agriculture. Nearly 92 percent of the total land area is hilly and covered with forests. Bamboo is found in large quantities in the State. Main crop is paddy, while wheat and marize are also grown in some areas.
There is no large – scale industry in Manipur. Handloom weaving is the largest single cottage industry, bamboo and cane articles, carpentry, blacksmith, leather goods, edible oil crushing, rich milling, gur and khandsari. The commissioning of the Latak Hydro Power Plant has added new dimensions to the power scenario in the State.
Airport in Manipur : Imphal.


Meghalaya State India Information

Meghalaya State of India :
Area : 22,429sq km
Population : 23,06,069; growth rate (11991-2001) 29.94%
Density per sq km : 103
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 975
Literacy rate : 63.31% ( males : 66.14% females : 60.41% )
Capital : Shillong
No. of Districts : 7
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Languages : Khasi, Garo and English.
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Place :
Kyllang Rock ( near Shillong ), Nartiang ( near Shillong ), Nohsangithinang Falls ( at Mawasmai near Cherrapunjee ), Shillong ( beautiful spots such as Ward’s Lake, Lady Hydari Park, Polo Ground, Mini Zoo, Elephant Falls and Shillong Peak and golf course ), Uniam Lake ( by the side of Shillong Guwahati road ).
Judicature : Meghalaya comes under the jurisdiction of Guwahati High Court. A circuit bench exists at Shillong.
Location : A landlocked territory of lovely hills with abounding sylvan beauty, Meghalaya ( meaning “the abode of clouds” ) is bounded on the north by Goalpara, Kamrup and Karbianglog by the districts of Assam State, and on the east by the districts of Cachar and North Cachar Hills, also of the State of Assam. On the south and west is Bangladesh.

History : The State was creates under the Assam Reorgaisation ( Meghalaya ) Act, 1969 and inaugurated on April 2, 1970 its status was that of a State within the State of Assam until January 21, 1972 when it became a full-fledged State of the Union. It consists of the former Garo Hills district and United Khasi and Jaintia Hills district of Assam.
Cherrapunjee, 53km from Shillong, is noted for its heavy rainfall. The annual average is 10,871 millimetres which varies greatly, 22,987 millimetres were recorded in 1861 with a maximum precipitation in July of 9,296.40 millimetres. The heaviest rainfall in the world is recorded in the nearby village of Mawsynram with an amphitheatre relief and on the windward side of the monsoon.
Economy : Agriculture is the main source of livelihood for over 80 percent of the population of Meghalaya. About 27 percent of the total cultivated area is under irrigation. Potato, tezpata, sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton, jute, mesta and arecanut are the main crops. Selected areas have been carmarked for growing high yielding varieties of paddy, wheat and maize. Fruits and vegetables are also grown in the Khasi and Jaintia Hills districts. The state is making good progress in horticulture.
Pineapples, oranges and bananas are the important produces. Forests and forest products are the chief resources of the State. Economic plantations of industrial and commercial use are being undertaken extensively.
Coal, sillimanite, limestone, dolomite, fire clay, felspar, quartz and glass sand are among the minerals of the Khasi Hills, Jaintia Hills and Garo Hills districts. Ninety – five percent of India’s total output of sillimanite is produced in the West Khasi Hills district. The Garo Hills district has deposits of coal, limestone, fire clay and light coloured sandstone. There is a cement factory at Cherrapunjee in the public sector with 1,65,000 mt per annum. There are also mini cement plants at Damas and Sutnga.


Nagaland State Information

Details of Nagaland State India :
Area : 16,579 sq km
Population : 19,88,636; growth rate ( 19911 – 2001 ) : 64.41%
Density per sq km : 120
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 909
Literacy rate : 67.11% ( males : 71.77%; females : 61.92% )
Capital : Kohima
No. of Districts : 8
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Languages : Ao, Chang, Chakhesang, Sangtam, Konyak, Angami, Sema and Lotha.
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places : Kohima, Mokokchung, Mon, Phek, Tuensang, Wokha, Zunhoboto.
Judicature : Situated in the extreme northeast of the country, Nagaland is bound by Arunachal Pradesh in the north, Manipur in the south, Myanmar in the east and Assam in the west.
Nagaland State India History :
Nagaland was constituted by the Union Government in September 1962. It comprises the former Naga Hills district of Assam and the former Tuensang Frontier division of the North – East Frontier Agency; these had been made a centrally administered area in 1957, administered by the President through the governor of Assam.
In January 1961, the area was renamed and given the status of a State of the Indian Union, which was officially inaugurated on December 1, 1963.
Nagaland State India Economy :
Agriculture is the main occupation of 84 percent of the people of Nagaland. Rice is the only important food grain grown in the State. Forests cover 17.56 percent of the area of the State.

Clay, coal, glass, limestone and sand are the minerals found in Nagaland. Handloom and sericulture are the important cottage industries. In 1999 -2000, about 84,800 hectares of land was under Jhum cultivation.


Orissa State India

Area : 1,55,707 sq km
Population : 3,67,06,920;growth rate (1991-2001): 15.94%
Density per sq km : 236
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 972
Literacy rate : 63.61% ( males : 75.95%; females : 50.97% )
Capital : Bhubaneswar
No. of districts : 30
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Language : Oriya
Important Cities, Town and Religious / Tourist Places :
Balas ore, Baripada, Beharmpur, Bhawani – patna, Bhubaneswar ( temple city known for Lingaraja Temple ), Bolangir, Chattarpur, Chilka Lake ( Kalijai Temple is located inside the lake ), Cuttack Lake Dhenkanal, Keonjhar, Konark ( Black Pagoda-Sun Temple built by Narasingha Dev of Ganga Dynasty ), Koraput, Nandankanam ( Zoological park ), Phulbani, Puri ( lord Jagannath Temple and beautiful seabeach; also known for the Car Festival ), Rourkela, Sambalpur, Sundargarh.
Places of tourist importance :
Dhauli Buddhist temple, Udayagiri – Khandagiri ancient caves, Ratnagiri – Lalitgiri and Udayagiri, Buddhist images and ancient caves, Saptasajya scenic view of hill beds. Similipal National Park and Tiger Project, Hirakud Dam, Duduma Waterfall, Ushakothi Wildlife Sanctuary, Gopalpur Sea Beach, Harishankar, Nrusinghanath, Taratarini, Taptapani, Bhitarkanika and Bhimakunda Kapilash are famous places. Hirakud Dam across the turbulent Mahanadi river is the biggest single dam constructed in the country.
Judicature : High court at Cuttack.
Location : Location in eastern India, Orissa is bounded north by Jharkhand, Northeast West Bengal, east by the Bay of Bengal, south by Andhra Pradesh and west by Chhattisgarh.
History : Orissa, the land of Oriyas, was known as Kalinga in ancient ages. Ashoka conquered it in 261 BC with the horrible bloodshed which converted him into a pacifist and a Buddhist monk. On his death, Kalinga recovered its freedom and rose to great heights under Kharavla. It came to be ruled by the Hindu dynasty until its conquest by the Mughals in 1592.
Alivardi Khan, Nawab of Bengal ceded it to the Marathas in 1751 from whom the East India Company snatched it in 1803. In 1803, a board of two commissioners was appointed to administer the province, but in 1805 it was designated the district of Cuttack and was placed in charge of a collector, judge and magistrate In 1829, it was split up into three regulation districts of Cuttack, Balasore and Puri, and the non-regulation tributary states which were administered by their own chiefs under the aegis of the British Government.
Augul, one of these tributary states, was annexed in 1847 and with the Khonbdmals, ceded in 1835 by the tributary chief of the Boudh state, constituted a separate no0n – regulation tributary states which were administered by their own annexed in 11847 and with the Khondmals, ceded in 1835 by the tributary chief of the Boudh state, constituted a separate non-regulation districts formed an outlying tract of the Bengal Presidency till 1912 when they were transferred to Bihar, constituting one of its divisions under a commissioner.

Orissa division. The rules of 25 Orison states surrendered all jurisdiction and authority to the government Jurisdiction and authority to the Government of India on January 1, 1948, on which date the provincial Government took over the administration. The administration of two states, viz., Saraikella and Kharswan, was transferred to the Government with the Dominion Government, Mayurbhanj state was finally merged with the province in January 1,1949. By the States Merger ( Governor’s provinces ) Order, 1949, the states were completely merged with the State of Orissa on August 19,1949.
Economy : The main occupation of sixty four percent of the people of Orissa is agriculture. The important crops are rice, pulses, oilseeds, jute, mesta, sugarcane, coconut and turmeric. Forests cover about 43 percent of the area of the state. Iron ore, manganese ore, limestone, dolomite chromite, non-coking coal, bauxite, graphite, china clay, nickel ore, fire clay and mineral sands are among the important minerals of Orissa.
The major mineral – based industries of the State are the Rourkela steel plant, a pig iron plant at Barbil and a ferrochrome plant at Jaipur Road, two ferro – manganese plants, a ferro – silicon plant and an aluminum smelter plant.
The power projects : Rengali, Upper Kolab and Kendupatna. Besides Hirakud and Talcher, work on new thermal and hydel projects like Sindol, Chiplima, Duburi, Naraj, Gopalpur, Durgapur and Hirma is in progress.


Information about Punjab State :

Area : 50,362 sq km
Population : 2,02,81,969; growth rate ( 1991 – 22001 ) : 19.76%
Density per sq km : 482
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 874
Principal Language : Punjabi
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places : amritsar ( Golden Temple, Durgiana Temple, Jallianwala Bagh ), Anandpur Rao, Bhakra Dam, Faridkot, Kapurthala, Ludhiana, Nangal Dam, Pathankot, Patiala, Ropar ( famous for ruins of Harappan city ), Sangrur, Taran ( Gurudwara in commemoration of Guru Ramdas )
Judicature : Punjab and Haryana have a common High Court at Chandigarh.
Location : Punjab is bound by Jammu and Kashmir in the north, Rajasthan and Haryana in the south, Himachal Pradesh in the east and Pakistan in the west.
Punjab State India History :
Punjab is the sword – arm of India. The Vedic civilisation got its birth and the great vedas were composed ion the banks of its five rivers. During the medieval ages, it decided the fate of various ruling dynasties of the country.
After the downfall of the Mughals and the Marathas, Ranjit Singh established in Punjab a strong state based on patriotism and secularism.
The English captured Punjab in 1849. It was constituted as an autonomous province of India in 1937.
On attainment of Independence, the province was partitioned between India and Pakistan into East Punjab and West Punjab respectively, under the Indian Independence Act, 1947, the boundaries being determined under the Radcliffe Award. The name of East Punjab was changed Punjab under the Constitution of India.
On November 1,1956 the erstwhile State of Patiala and East Punjab to form the State of Punjab. On November 1, 1966, under the Punjab reorgaisation Act, 1966, the State was reconstituted as a Punjabi – speaking State Comprising the Districts of Gurdaspur ( excluding Dalhousie ), Amritsar, kapurthala, Jalandhar, Ferozepur, Bathinda, Patiala and Ludhiana, parts of Sangrur, Hosphiarpur and Ambala districts, and parts of Kharar tehsil.
The remaining area comprising as area of 46,620 sq km ( 18,000sq miles ) and an estimated ( 1967 ) population of 8.5 million was shared Himachal Pradesh. The existing capital of Chandigarh was made the joint capital of Punjab and Haryana.
Punjab State India Economy :
For about 66 percent of the people of the people of Punjab, agriculture is the mainstay, About 86 percent of the total area of the State is under cultivation.
Wheat, rice, maize, bajra, jowar, gram, barley and pulses are the important foodgrains. Oilseeds, sugarcane, tobacco, cotton and potatoes are the principle cash crops. The State is surplus in food grains, especially wheat and rice.
Punjab is known for the small scale industries which consist of footwear, machine tolls, bicycles, bicycle parts, sewing machines and parts, plastic goods, pipes, sports goods, nuts and bolts, wood and screws, etc. Seventy percent of the woollen hosiery of India is produced in the State.
The major irrigation and power projects of Punjab are :
Bhakra – Nangal, Ganguwal, Kootla, Harika, Sirhind & Madhopur Beas Link was constructed to transfer surplus water of Ravi to Beas. A similar Beas – Sutlej link project envisages utilization of Beas water for the production of electricity at slapper and then Transfer of its water to Gobind Sagar Lake, Pong Dam on the Beas Sutlej link projects are two important projects.
The important projects. The important thermal projects are Guru Gobinal Singh Thermal Plant at Ropar.
The Ranjit Sagar Dam ( earlier known as Thein Dam ) is in Gurdaspur district. There are domestic and Ludhiana. Amritsar airport has been upgraded to international one.


State India Rajasthan
Area : 3,42,239 sq km
Population : 5,64,73,122; growth rate (1991-2001); 28.33%
Density per sq km : 165
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 922
Literacy rate : 61. 03% (males: 76.46% females: 44.34%
Capital : Jaipur
No. of Districts : 32
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Languages : Hindi and Rajasthani
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places :
Ajmer ( Dargah of Khwaja Moinn – ud – Din Chishti, Mayo college, Pushkar ), Alwar ( Sariska Tiger Sanctuary ), Banswara, Barmer, Bharatpur ( historic fort, Keoladeo Ghana Bird sanctuary ) Bhilwara, Bikaner ( a desert city ), Known for 16th century Lalgarh Palace built by Raja Rai Singh ), Bundi, Chittorgarh ( founded by great Rajput resistance hero, Bappa Rawal in 734 AD was centre of Rajput resistance against Mughal rule, Famous for Chittor Fort, Kirti Stambha [ Tower of Fame ], Jai Stambha [ Tower of Victory ] Meena Temple, Rana Kumbba Palace ), Churu, Dholpur, Dungarpur, Ganganagar, Jaipur ( pink rose capital city of the State, known for Maharaja Palace, Hawa Mahal [ Palace of Winds ], Jantar Mantra Observatory, Museum and Ram Niwas Garden. The 17th century old Palace of Amber is located 11 km from here ).
Jaisalmer, Jalor, Jhalawar, Jhunjhunu, Jodhur ( a city of seven gates, Guland Sagar Lake, Hall of Heros ), Kota, Mount Abu ( bill resort, Known for Dilwara Temples ( sacred to Jains ), Nagaur, Nathdwara ( 12th century temple dedicated to Lord Krishna ), Pali, Sariska ( wildlife sanctuary ), Sawai Madhopur , Sikar, Sirohi, Tonk, Udaipur ( founded by King of Mewar Maharana Udai Singh , it is known as “City of Sunrise ” and Venice of the East “, Fateh Sagar Lake, Lake Picchola, Raj Mahal, Jag Mandir Palace, Jag Nivas Palace ).
Judicature : High Court at Jodhpur ( also has a bench at Jaipur ).
Location : Located in north – west India, Rajasthasn is bounded north by Punjab, north – east by haryana and Uttar Pradesh, east by Madhya pradesh, south by Gujarat and west by Pakistan. Rajasthan is the largest State of the Indian union in terms of its size.
History : Rajasthan was preciously known as Rajputana – the land of Raiputs whose history goes back to the pre – historic times. The Indus Valley Civilisation also flourished here and many ruins of Harappan age have been located in the State. The legendary heroes of medieval ages like Rana Sanga and Maharana Pratap always inspire us with feelings of patriotism but during the 19th century, all Rajput States accepted the suzerainty of the British.
After Independence, as a result of the implementation of the States Reorganisation Act, 1956, the erstwhile state of Ajmer, Abu Taluka of Bombay State and the Sunel Tappa enclave of the former State of Madhya Bharat were transferred to the State of Rajasthan on November 1, 1956, whereas the Sironj sub – division of Rajasthan was transferred to the state of Madhya Pradesh. The State now comprises of 32 districts.
Economy : About 19 percent of the total sown area in Rajas than is under irrigation. Agricultural production is mainly dependent on rainfall. Jowar, bajra, maize , gram, wheat, oilseeds, cotton, sugarcane and tobacco are the main crops.
India’s entire output of lead and zinc concentrates; emeralds and garnets are found in rajasthan. Similarly, 94 percent of country’s gypsum, 76 percent of silver ore, 84 percent of asbestos, 68 percent of felspar and 12 percent of mica are mined in the State. Rich salt deposits are available at Sambhar and other places. Khetri and Dariba are known for copper mines.
The major industries of rajasthan include textiles, rugged and woollen goods, sugar, cement, glass, sodium producing plant, oxygen and acetylene producing units, manufacture of pesticides, insecticides and vegetable dyes, zinc smelter, ‘fertiliser, railway wagons, ball bearings, water and electric meters, etc. Manufacture of caustic soda, calcium carbide, nylon and tyre cord and copper smelting are the other enterprising units. Rajasthan is also known for handicrafts, the important being marble work, woollen carpets , articles of leather, pottery, jewellery, embroiddery and brass embossing. The first Export Promotion Industrial Park in the country is established at Sitapur in Jaippur district.
Airports : Kaipur, Jodhpur and Uddaipur.



Sikkim State India
Area : 7.096 sq km
Population : 5,40,492; growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 32.98%
Density per sq km : 76
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 875
Literacy rate : 69.68% ( males : 76.73% females : 61.46% )
Capital : Gangtok
No. of Districts : 4
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Languages : Bhutia, Nepali, Lepcha and Limbu
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places :
Bankhim Natural Garden changu Lake, ( Dubdi monastery ), Gangtok ( capital nine mid – 1800s, previous capitals were at Yuksam and Rabdantse; one can have excellent views of the entire Kanchenjunga range from any point in the vicinity ), Gyalshing, Mangan, Namchi, Pemayantse ( monastery ), Phodang ( monastery ), Tashiding ( monastery ), Rumtek ( monastery ), Tashi View Point ( picnic spot here a panoramic view of Kanchenjunga can be had ), Yuksam ( meeting place of the great Lamas ).
Judicature : High court at Gangtok.
Location : Location in the Eastern Himalayas, Sikkim is bounded north by Tibet ( China ), east by Tibet and Bhutan, south by West Bengal and west by Nepal. It is the least populated State of the Indian Union.
History :
Sikkim became a full – fledged state of the Indian Union with effect from April 26, 1975. Earlier in September 1974, it became an associate State. The Legislative Assembly adopted a resolution on April 10, 1975 abolishing the institution of Chogyal and seeking for the territory full statehood in the Indian Union.
Sikkim is inhabited chiefly by the Lepchas, who are a tribe indigenous to Sikkim with their own dress and language, the Bhutias, who originally came from Tibet, and the Gorkhalis ( Nepalis ), who entered from Nepal in large numbers in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Economy :
Sikkim’s economy is principally agrarian. The main crops are rice, maize wheat, millet and barley. Only 11 to 12 percent of the total land is available for cultivation and there is no scope for expansion. The principal cash crops are cardamom in India. About a third of the area is under forests.
High grade deposits of gold, silver copper and zinc in combined form have recently been located. The copper mine of Dikchu is under exploration. Wool weaving and carpet weaving are among important traditional industries. The important hydel projects are kalez Hydel Project and Lachung in North Sikkim.

                                                                                 Tamil Nadu

Tamil Nadu States in India

List of Tamil Nadu Places :
Area : 1,30,058 sq km
Population : 6,21,10,839;growth are ( 1991 – 2001 ); 11.19%.
Density per sq km : 478
Sex ratio ( females per 1,000 males ) : 986
Literacy rate : 73.47% ( males : 82.33%; females : 64.55% )
Capital : Chennai
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Language : Tamil
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places :
Anamalai ( wild Lift Sanctuary ), Chennai ( earlier name Madras, Fort Street George and St. Mary’s Church, Gandhi Mandapam, Tapaleeswarar Temple, Marina Beach, Aquarium, Parthasarathy Temple, San Thome Cathedral, Fort Museum. Snake Park, Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary, Guindy Wild Life Sanctuary, Vandalur Zoolgical Park), Chidambaram ( abode of Nataraja ( the “Dancing Shiva” ), temples of Dravidian architecture ), Chithannavasal ( monument centre ), Dharmapuri, Dindigul, Elagiri ( hill station ), Erode, Hogenakkal ( hill station ), Kalakad ( Wild Life Sanctuary ).

Kancheepuram ( the “Golden City” known for silk industry was successively capital of City” known for silk industry was successively capital of the Pallavas, the cholas and the kings of Vijayanagar, known for the seventh century temples ), Kanyakumari ( earlier known as Cape Comorin, sacred place of Hindus, impressive memorial of Swami. Vivekananda ), Kazhugumalai ( monument centre ), Madurai ( Meenakshi Temple, Tirumalai Nayak Temple, rock – cut temple at Tiruparankundram ), Mahabalipuram ( also known as Mamalapuram, Famous beach and solid rock monuments ), Moovarkoil ( monument centre ).
Nagoor ( monument center ), Mundanthuri ( Wild Life Sanctuary ), Mudumalai ( wild Life Sanctuary), Nagapattinam, Nagercoil, Narthamalai ( monument centre ), Ootacamund [ Udhagamandalam ] ( hill resort ), Papanasam ( hill station ), Point Calimere ( Bird Sanctuary ), Pudukkotai), Singanallur sivagangai, Srirangam ( monument centre ), Suruli ( water falls ), Thanjavur ( capital of Chola emperors during 10th to 14th centuries AD, Brihadeeswara Temple ), ( monument centre ), Tiruvannamalai ( monument centre ), Vellore, Virudhunagar, Yercaud ( hill station ).
Judicature : High Court at chennai.
Location : Location is South India; Tamil Nadu is bounded north by Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, East by the Bay of Bengal, south by the Indian Ocean and west by Kerala.
Tamil Nadu State History :
The history of Tamil Nadu goes back to the age of the sangams when a great civilisation flourished reaching new heights in the fields, of art, literature and occultism.
During the medieval ages, it proudly preserved the heritage of the nation unperturbed by the ravages of the Muslim inroads in Northern India. The first trading establishment made by the British in the Madras State was at Peddapali ( now Nizampatnam ) in 1611 and then at Mazulipatnam. In 1639, the English were permitted to make a settlement at the place which is now Madras and Fort St. George was founded.
By 1801, the whole of the territory from the Northen Circars to Cape Comorin ( with the exception of certain French and Danish settlements ) had been brought under British rule. Under the provisions of the States Reorgainisation Act, 1965, the Malabar district ( excluding the islands of Laccadive and Minicoy ) and the Kasaragod taluk of south Kanara district were transferred to the new State of Kerala.
The South Kanara district ( excluding Kasaragod taluk of the Coimbatore district were transferred to the new State of Mysore; and the Kollegal taluk of the Coimbatore district were transferred to the new State of Mysore; and the Laccadive Amindivi and Minicoy Island were constituted as a separate Union Territory. Four taluks of the Thiruvananthapuram district and the shencottah taluk of Quilon district were transferred from Travancore - Cochin to the new Madras State. On April 1,1960, an area of 1,049 sq km ( 405 sq miles ) from Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh was transferred to Madras in exchanger for 845 sq km ( 326 sq miles ) from the Chingleput and Salem districts. In January 1969, the State was renamed Tamil Nadu.

Tamil Nadu State Economy :
Agriculture is the main occupation of the people in Tamil Nadu. The principal food crops are rice, maize, jowar, Bajara, ragi and pulses. The main commercial crops are sugarcane, oilseeds, cotton, chillies, coffee, tea and rubber. The plantation crop’s, are tea, coffee, cardamom and rubber. Forests cover about 17 percent of State’s area and produce timber pulpwood and sandalwood.
Some of the minerals found in the state are limestone, magnesite, mica, quartz, felspar, salt, bauxite, lignite and gypsum. The major industries of the State are cotton textiles, chemicals fertilisers, paper and paper products, printing and allied, industries, diesel engines, automobiles and parts and paper products, printing and allied, industries, diesel engines, automobiles and parts, cement, sugar, iron and steel and railway wagons and coaches.
Tamil Nadu is an important exported of tanned skin and hides and leather goods, cotton piece goods tea, coffee, spices, tobacco, etc. Tamil Nadu has a number of hydro-electric and thermal station.

The atomic power plant is located at Kalpakkam in Chengalpattu MGR district. Chennai is the international airport besides, there are airports at Tiruchirapalli, Madurai, Coimbatore and Salem. Chennai and Tuticorin are the major ports, while Cuddalore and Nagapattinam are minor ports.


Particulars Description
Area 10,491.69 km2
Population 36,71,032 (census 2011) more

Capital Agartala
Principal Languages Bengali and Kokborok

Tripura: At a Glance
Tripura is a state in North-East India which borders Bangladesh, Mizoram and Assam. It is surrounded by Bangladesh on its north, south and west: the length of its international border is 856 km (84 per cent of its total border). It shares a 53 km long border with Assam and a 109 km long border with Mizoram. The state is connected with the rest of India by only one road (NH-44) that runs through the hills to the border of Karimganj District in Assam and then winds through the states of Meghalaya, Assam and North Bengal to Calcutta.

Particulars Description
Other Languages English, Hindi, Manipuri, Chakma
Altitude 12.80 meters
Temperature Summer :20 to 36° C.
Winter :7 to 27° C. Winter 2°. C Min
Rainy Season June to August
Average rainfall 2500 mm per annum
International Border 856 Km.
Literacy rate 73.66% ( As recorded in 2001 Census)

At the time of Tripura's merger with effect from October 15 1949 with the Indian Union, the major mode of farming was shifting cultivation or 'jhum', which produced little surplus. A small proportion of the plain lands of the State were under settled agriculture undertaken by Bengalis, and the main crop was rice. Most of the plain lands of the State were not under cultivation and were covered with cane-brakes and marshes. Thus at the time of formation of the State, the economy was predominantly agricultural and forest-based, with no industrial base, a low level of urbanization and limited infrastructure.

Demographic Tripura
Art and Culture

Historical Background
Travel & Tourism

Healthcare Centres
Rabindranath who immortalized Tripura

For administrative convenience and decentralisation of power Tripura which had once been a single district only is now divided into altogether four districts, seventeen subdivisions and forty rural development blocks. Besides, a special feature of the state is the vibrant existence of an Autonomous District Council (ADC) for tribals based on 6th schedule of the Indian constitution. The ADC in Tripura encompasses 68.10% of the state's total geographical territory and is home to roughly one third of the state's population.

Historical Background

Tripura, currently a full-fledged state of North-East India, was formerly a princely state that had a long list of tribal kings stretching back into antiquity. According to versions presented in different editions of 'Rajmala', princely Tripura's court chronicle , altogether 184 or 179 kings of the Manikya dynasty had ruled the state . Scholars on Tripura's history , however, attribute all the pre-fifteenth century kings to the realm of mythology though continued sway of the Manikya dynasty has been attested since the year 1432.
The partition of India in 1947 and political upheavals that had preceded and followed the momentous development had brought an end to princely rule of Manikya dynasty in Tripura. After India became independent, Tripura

acceded to the Indian Union on 15 October, 1949 as a "C" category state and became a Union Territory in November 1956. A popularly elected ministry was formed in Tripura in July 1963 and since then, the State has had governments elected on the basis of universal adult franchise. Tripura attained full statehood on January 21, 1972. Tripura is also rich in its composite cultural heritage embodied in archaeological remains , architecture and sculpture.
Art & Culture

Tripura, nestled in a tip of the Northeast, flourishes on the bounties of nature but the beauty of the state is heightened by its human resources on the one hand and rich cultural tradition on the other.
Folk culture of the tribal and non-tribal people of the state forms the backbone of Tripura's cultural tradition. This is reflected as much in the delicately rhythmic physical movement of the 'Hoza Giri' dance of the Reang tribesmen as in the collective musical recitation of 'Manasa Mangal' or 'Kirtan' (devotional songs in chorus) of the non-tribals. Apart from this, the 'Garia' dance of the tribals, organized on the occasion of New Year festivities and worship of 'Garia', and 'Dhamail' dance of the non-tribals, organized on familial occasions like wedding ceremony in rural areas as well as musical duels (Kabi Gaan) between two rival rhyme-makers on public platforms form the staple of Tripura's folk culture. Enriched by myths and legends of tribal society over the past half a millennium.

Tripura's folk culture now confronts a major threat from so-called modernity. Gone are the days when rhythmic movement of artists in 'Garia' or 'Dhamail' dance would keep viewers awake all through the night.These forms of culture have been falling prey to invasion of modernity as western musical instruments like guitar, mandolin etc keep replacing the traditional instruments like indigenous drums and flutes and western 'break dance' push aside the pristine purity of the 'Garia' dance or 'Dhamail'. However, cultural programmes, marked by songs and dances, associated with birth anniversaries of great poets and lyricists Rabindra Nath Tagore and Kazi Nazrul Islam add colour and charm to the state's multi-layered cultural mosaic enriched by contributions from many streams of sub-culture.
Demographic Features

Tripura is the 2nd smallest state in terms of area, but the 2nd most populous state in the North Eastern Region. Although the state is small with a population of only over three million, the social composition of the population of Tripura is diverse. In particular, around one-third of the population comprises people belonging to the Scheduled Tribes.

According to final results of 2001 census, the state's population stood at 31.99 lakh, with a density of 305 persons per sq. km. In 2006, the estimated mid-decade population of the state was 34,74,000 comprising 17,79,000 males and 16,95,000 females. The birth rate in the state in the year 2006 was 16.6 per thousand which was the lowest in northeastern region, much lower than the national average of 23.5. Again, in 2006, its death rate was 6.3 per thousand which was much below the all India average of 8.1 and was second lowest after Mizoram. There are 19 sub-tribes among the scheduled tribes in the state with their own distinctive cultures.

Population pattern and demography have always been sensitive issues in Tripura over the past century which saw an actual decline in indigenous tribal population in terms of percentage because of resettlement of non-tribals in the state, particularly in the aftermath of the partition of the country in 1947. In 1901 Tripura's population was 1.73 lakh, with tribals making up nearly 52.89 per cent of the whole. By 1941, the total population rose to 5.13 lakh with a barely 50.09 per cent tribal majority. But by 1981, the tribal population dipped to 28.44 per cent of a total population of 2.05 million. Evidently, the tribal people were reduced from over a half to barely more than a quarter of the state's population in a century. The demographic changes, the economic pressures created by the sudden influx of people and the spread of education through missionary influence among the Mizos, Kukis and other tribes, have generated new impulses and a mix of expectations and aspirations. A feature of note is that around 97.4 per cent of the tribal population is rural. Human development among tribal people is thus very closely tied to the evolution of the rural economy.

                                                                                 Uttar Pradesh

Uttar Pradesh State India
Area : 2,38,566,sq km
Population : 16,60,52,859;growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 25.80%
Density per sq km : 689
Sex ratio (females per 1,000 males) : 8998
Literacy rate : 57.36% ( males : 70.23% females : 42.98% )
Capital : Lucknow
No. of Districts : 71
Legislature : Bicameral
Principal Languages : Hindi and Urdu
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places :
Agra ( world famous Taj Mahal, Sikandara, Agra Fort, Fatehpur Sikri ), Aligarh ( formerly known as Koil, this ancient city has traces of Buddhist and Hindu temples; now famous for aligarh Muslim University ), Allahabad ( earlier known as Prayag (meaning a place of sacrifice ), it is near the confluence of rivers Ganga and Yamuna, it is an ancient Hindu Pilgrimage city, Ayodhya ( birthplace of Lord Rama and important pilgrimage centre ), Azamgarh, Bahraich, Ballia, Bareilly ( former capital of the region known as Rohilkhand ).
Bithur, Budaun, Bulandshahr, Deoria, Devgarh, Eta, Etawah ( important town during Mughal period ), Faizabad, Farrukhabad, Fatehgarh, Fatehpur Sikri ( deserted sandstone e city located near Agra, Dargah of Sheikh Salim Chisti ), Firozabad, Ghaziabad, Ghazipur,Gonda, Gorakhpur ( Gorakhnath temple; Geeta Press publishing Hindu religious literature ), Hamirpur, Hardoi, Jaunpur, ( historical Place; famous for Jhansi fort; transit point for Khajuraho ), Kannauj ( once a mighty Hindu city, it was raided by Mahmud of Ghazni; here Humayun city, it was raided by Mahmud of Ghazni; here Humayun was defeated by Sher Shah in1540 )
Kanpur ( sometimes called the ‘Manchester of India’ is an important industrial town; city was earlier known as’Cawnpore’ ), Kheri, Lalitpur, Lucknow ( named after Lakshman, Younger brother of Lord Rama, ) the hero of the famous epic “Ramayana”, the city stands on river Gomati; known for Bara Imambara, Mainpuri, Mathura ( situated on the banks of river Yamuna, place of Hindu pilgrimage and birth place of Lord Krishna ), Moradabad, Muzaffarnagar, Orai, Pilibhit, Pratapgparh, Prayag ( known for the confluence of river Ganga and Yamuna ), Rae Bareli, Rampur, Robertsganj, Saharanpur.
Sarnath [ major Buddhist centre ( here Buddha gave his first sermon ); known for Deer Park, Dhamekh Stupa, Dharmarajika Stupa and Ashoka Pillar ], Shahjahanpur,Siddharth Nagar, Sitapur, Sultanpur, Unao, Varanasi ( Hindu Pilgrimage town located on the banks of Ganga, Benaras Hindu University, Bharat Mata Temple, Durga Temple, Gyanvapi Mosque, Alamgir Mosque, Sarnath, Tulsi Manas Temple, Vishwanath Temple, New Vishwanath Temple), Vindhyachal (Place of pilgrimage ).
Other important places of pilgrimage : Vindhyachal. Ayodhya, Chitrakoot, Prayag, Jogeshwar, Naimisharanya, Vrindavan, Deva Sharief Pearanklar, Sharvasti, Kushinagar, Sankisa, Kampil, Piprahva, Kaushambi. Magnificent scenic beautician scenic beauty sports- Sang am, in Allahabad, Hindon (Ghaziabad) and Tanda waterfalls in Faizabad, Kasauni and Dudhwa Sanctuary.
Judicature : High court at Allahabad. There is a bench at Lucknow also.
Location : Uttar Pradesh is bounded by Uttarachal and Nepal in north, Madhya pradesh and Chattisgarh in south, Rajasthan, Haryana and Delhi in west and Bihar and Jharkhand in east.

History : Uttar Pradesh is the heart of India whose history goes back to the Vedic Age. Two great epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata and great religions-Buddhism and jainism were born and flourished here. In the medieval ages, great muslim empires were established in this region. It played a prominent role in India’s first war of Independence in 1857.
The Britishers gave it the name of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. In 1935 the name was shortened to “United Provinces”. After Independence, the States of Rampur, Banaras and Tehri-Garhwal were merged with United Provinces. The name merged with United Provinces. The name of the United Provinces was changed to Uttar Pradesh in 1950.
Economy : For about 78 percent of the population of Uttar Pradesh, Agriculture is the main occupation. Wheat, rice gram, barley, maze and bajra are the principal food crops. Cotton linseed, Groundnut, sugarcane, tea, sesamum, rapeseed, mustard and tobacco are the main cash crops. Uttar Pradesh is the main opium growing State of India. In some parts of the State, jute is also cultivated. It is the largest producer of food grains, sugarcane and oilseeds. The State is India’s “sugarcane bowl”.
The important industries : Cotton and Woollen Textiles, Leather and Footwear, Distilleries and brew4eries, paper, chemicals, agricultural implements and glass and glass products. Handloom is the largest cottage industry of the State. The traditional handicrafts are silk fabrics, metalware, wood work, cermics, stone work, dolls, artistic leather articles, perfumery, bamboo products and musical instruments.
Major irrigation projects : Lakhwar Vyasi, eastern Ganga Canal, Modernisation of Maudaka Dam, Sarda Sahayak, Saryu Canal and Urmil Dam.
Airports : located in Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi, Bareilly, Hindon ( Ghaziabad, Gorakhpur, Saraswa ( Saharanpur ) and Fursatganj ( Rae Bareli ).



Particulars Description
Area 53,484 sq. km
Population 84,89,349
Capital Dehradun
Principal Languages Hindi, Garhwali, Kumaoni
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History and Geography
Uttarakhand finds mention in the ancient Hindu scriptures as Kedarkhand, Manaskhand and Himavant. The Kushanas, Kunindas, Kanishka, Samudra Gupta, the Pauravas, Katuris, Palas, the Chandras and Panwars and the British have ruled it in turns. It is often called the Land of the Gods (Dev Bhoomi) because of its various holy places and abundant shrines. The hilly regions of Uttarakhand offer pristine landscapes to the tourists.
The State of Uttarakhand was earlier a part of the United Province of Agra and Awadh, which came into existence in 1902. In 1935, the name of State was shortened to the United Province. In January 1950, the United Province was renamed as Uttar Pradesh and Uttaranchal remained a part of Uttar Pradesh before it was carved out of Uttar Pradesh on 09 November 2000. It is incepted as the 27th State of India.
Located in the foothills of the Himalayas, the State has international boundaries with China (Tibet) in the north and Nepal in the east. On its North-West lies Himachal Pradesh, while on the south is Uttar Pradesh.
About 90 per cent of the population of Uttarakhand depends on agriculture. The total cultivated area in the State is 7, 67, 571 hectares.
Industry and Minerals
The State is rich in mineral deposits like limestone, marble, rock phosphate, dolomite, magnesite, copper graphite, gypsum, etc. The number of small-scale industries is 34,231 providing employment to 1,77,677 persons, with an investment of Rs.14,965,67 crore
Irrigation and Energy
Agricultural land under irrigation is 5, 49, 381 hectares. The State has excellent potential for hydropower generation. There are a number of hydro-electric projects on the rivers Yamuna, Bhagirathi, Bhilangana, Alaknanda, Mandakini, Saryu Gauri, Kosi and Kali generating electricity. Total hydropower potential approximately 25,450 MW. Projects allotted to various agencies 13,667 MW. Out of 15,761 villages, 15,241 villages have been electrified.
Roads: The total length of metalled roads in Uttarakhand is 29,939 km. The length of PWD roads is 22,623 km. The length of roads built by local bodies is 15,041 km.
Railways: The main railway stations are Dehradun, Hardwar, Roorkee, Kotdwar, Kashipur, Udhamsingh Nagar, Haldwani, Ramnagar and Kathgodam.
Aviation: There are air strips at Jolly Grant (Dehradun), and Pantnagar (Udham Singh Nagar). Air strips at Naini-Seni (Pithoragarh), Gauchar (Chamoli) and Chinyalisaur (Uttarkashi) are under construction. From this year Pawan Hans Ltd., has started helicopter service from Rudraprayag to Kedarnath for pilgrims.
The world-famous Kumbh Mela/Ardh Kumbh Mela is held at Hardwar at every twelfth/sixth year interval. Other prominent fairs/festivals are : Devidhura Mela (Champawat), Purnagiri Mela (Champawat), Nanda Devi Mela (Almora), Gauchar Mela (Chamoli), Baisakhi (Uttarkashi), Magha Mela (Uttarkashi), Uttaraini Mela (Bageshwar), Vishu Mela (Jaunsar Bhabar), Peerane-Kaliyar (Roorkee), and Nanda Devi Raj Jat Yatra held every twelfth year.
Tourist Centres

Kedarnath Temple

Prominent places of pilgrimage/tourist interests are Gangotri, Yamunotri. Badrinath, Kedarnath, Hardwar, Rishikesh, Hemkund Sahib, Nanakmatta, etc. Kailash Mansarovar Yatra can be performed through Kumaon region. The world-famous Valley of Flowers, Pindari Glacier, Roop Kund, Dayara Bugyal, Auli, and hill stations like Mussoorie, Dehradun, Chakrata, Nainital, Ranikhet, Bageshwar, Bhimtal, Kausani, and Lansdowne etc. are the other tourist destinations.

                                                                            West bangal

West Bengal State India

State of West Bengal India
Area : 88,752 sq km
Population : 8,02,21,171; growth rate ( 1991 – 2001 ) : 17.84%
Density per sq km : 904
Sex Ratio : ( females per 1,000 males ) ; 934
Literacy rate : 69.22% ( males : 77.58% females : 60.22% )
Capital : Kolkata
No. of Districts : 18
Legislature : Unicameral
Principal Language : Bengali
Important Cities, Towns and Religious / Tourist Places of West Bengal :
Alipur, Asansol, Balurghat, Bakkhali Sea Resort, Bakreshwar, Bankura, Barasat, Burdwan, Berhampur, Kolkata ( India’s largest city and third largest in the world, Howrah Bridge renamed Rabindra Setu, Maidan, Chowringhee, Victoria Memorial, Indian Museum, Zoological Garden, Dakshineshwar Temple, Shaheed Minar, Fort William, Jorasanko Thankurbati – Birthplace of Rabindranath Tagore, Rabindra Sarovar, Nehru Children Museum. Pareshnath Temple, Kalighat Temple, Birla Planetairum, India’s First Underground Railway ), Coochbehar, Darjeeling ( Hill Stations, Mirik, Kalimpong, Sandakfu and Falut and Kurseong ), Digha ( Midnapore ) Durgapur ( Burdwan ), Hugli, Jalpaiguri ( Jaldapara and Dooars ), Kharagpur, Krishnagar, Malda ( Gour and Pandua ), Midnapur, Murshidabad, Purulia, Sagar Island and Sunderbans ( South 24 – Parganas ), Shantiniketan, Suri, Tarakeswar.

Judicature : High Court at Kolkata.
West Bengal in India Location :
Location in Northeast India, West Bengal is bounded north by Sikkim and Bhutan east by Assam and Bangladesh, South by the Bay of Bengal and Orissa, West by Bihar and West Bengal, and Northwest by Nepal.
History of West Bengal :
Bengal has a glorious past. It played a prominent part in the History, both in the ancient and the medieval ages. The British established their foothold in India from here in the Battle of Plassey in 1757. The partition of the country in 1947 divided Bengal into two parts, East Bengal and West Bengal.
The Muslim majority districts of East Bengal, consisting of the Chittagong and Dacca Divisions and some other Muslim – majority districts became what was then East Pakistan ( now Bangladesh ) and rest came to be known as West Bengal and became a constituent of the Indian Union. The Territory of Cooch Behar was merged with West Bengal on January 1, 1950 and the former French possession of Chandernagore became part of the State on October 2, 1954. Under the States Reorganisation Act, 11956, certain portions of Bihar State were also transferred to West Bengal.
West Bengal State Economy :
For about 75 percent of the population of West Bengal agriculture is the main occupation. Agriculture contributes nearly 50 percent of the state income. About 45 percent of the total cultivated area is under irrigation. The West Bengal major crops are rice and jute. West Bengal occupies a leading position among the rice producing States in India.
The State of West Bengal accounts for about 57.3 percent of jute produced in the country and more than 24 percent of tea production. The export of these two brings about considerable foreign exchange for the State. Wheat, potato, pulses, oilseeds, barley, maize, betel leaf, tobacco and sugarcane are the important crops of West Bengal. About 143.4 percent of the State is covered with forests.

West Bengal is rich in Mineral Resources :
Coal, China Clay and Dolomite are the three most important minerals available in West Bengal. Other minerals are Rock Phosphate, Fire Clay, Limestone, Copper, Iron, Silica, Quartz, Manganese and Sandstone. The State is also highly industrialised one steel plant and one alloy steel plant at Durgapur and another steel plant at Burnpur are the important industries of West Bengal.
Other major industries of the State are Jute, Tea, Cotton Textiles, Silk, Automobiles, Bicycles, Light Engineering, Paper, Pharmaceuticals, Chemicals, Aluminum, Sugar, Timber Processing, Ceramic and Glass, Leather and Footwear, Bone – Metal and Dairying. Important multipurpose irrigation schemes of West Bengal include Damodar Valley, Mayurkahi, Kangsbati and Subarnarekha Barrage.
The Irrigation Schemes of West Bengal State :
Teesta Mahananda link canal in Jalpaiguri District, Terageria and Turga Irrigation Scheme in Purulia, Hinlow Irrigation Scheme in Birbhum District and Sohajare Scheme in Bankura District. Kolkata is the most important port besides Haldia. Dum Dum near Kolkata is an International Airport. The other airfields in the State are Balurghat, Cooch Behar, Malda, Bagdogra, Panagarh, Behala, Barrackpore and Kalaikunda.

                                                                 Union territory

                                                                  Andman and Nikobar

Andaman & Nicobar Islands

Particulars Description
Area 8,249 sq. km
Population 356,152
Capital Port Blair
Principal Languages Hindi, Nicobarese, Bengali, Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu
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History and Geography
The Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, is situated between 6° and 14° North Latitude and 92° and 94° East Longitude. The islands located north of 10° north latitude are known as Andaman Group of islands while islands located south of 10° north latitude are called Nicobar Group of islands. The climate of the islands can be defined as humid, tropical coastal climate. The islands receive rainfall from both the south west and north east monsoons and maximum precipitation is between May & December.
The original inhabitants of the islands lived in the forests on hunting and fishing. There are four Negrito tribes, viz., the Great Andamanese, Onge, Jarawa and Sentinalese in the Andaman group of islands and two Mongoloid tribes, viz., Nicobarese and Shompens in the Nicobar group of islands.
A total of 51,694.35 hect. of area 8068.71 hectares under agriculture and plantation in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands was damaged by Tsunami/Earthquake. Out of that paddy and other field crops is 2177.70 ha. and 5891.01 ha. under plantation crops. Area under permanent submergence is 4206.64 hect. with paddy and other field crops.
Paddy, the main food crop, is mostly cultivated in Andaman group of Islands, whereas Coconut and Areca nut are the cash crops of Nicobar group of Islands. Field crops, namely, pulses, oilseeds and vegetable are grown followed by paddy during Rabi season. Different kinds of fruits such as mango, sapota, orange, banana, papaya, pineapple and root crops are grown on hilly land owned by the farmers. Spices, viz. pepper, clove, nutmeg and cinnamon are grown under multitier cropping system. Rubber, red oil, palm and cashew are grown on a limited scale in these Islands.
There are 1833 registered MSMEs and Handicrafts Units as on 31 March 2007. Two units are 100 per cent export oriented units in the line of Fish/Prawn processing activity. Apart from this, there are shells and wood based handicraft units. SSI units are engaged in the production of paints and varnishes, mini flour mills, soft drinks and beverages, steel furniture and fixtures, readymade garments, steel gate grills and structures. MSMEs handicraft units are also engaged in shell crafts, bakery products, rice-milling, furniture-making, etc. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Integrated Development Corporation in the Public sector has spread its wings in the field of Tourism, Fisheries, Industries and Industrial financing and functions as authorized agents for Alliance Air/Jet Airways/Air Deccan.
The Motor Transport Department of A & N Administration operates from 13 stations in Northern and Southern group of islands. The department has a total number of 205 buses in operation mainly in rural area of A & N islands. Computerized ticketing for ATR express service has been implemented w.e.f. 15th August, 2007 where advance tickets can be obtained
During the year 2007-08 a total of 135.88 lakh people travelled by the State Transport Sevice buses and the Department has generated a revenue of Rs.1075.22 lakhs. It is therefore evident that the Department has been making steady progress in not only providing better public transport service but also has been increasing its earnings.
Recorded forest is 7,171 sq km of the total geographical area of the islands. Many types of forests are found in the islands, such as tropical wet evergreen, tropical semi-evergreen, moist deciduous, littoral, mangrove and swamp forests. A large variety of timbers are found in the Andaman group of islands. The most valuable timbers are padauk and gurjan. These species are not found in Nicobar.
There are 96 Wildlife Sanctuaries, 9 National Parks and 1 Biosphere Reserve in these Islands.
Mammals - Out of 55 terrestrial and 7 Marine mammal species reported so far, 32 species are endemic.
Birds - As many as 246 species and sub species of birds are reported to inhabit these Islands, and of these, 99 species and sub species are endemic.
Reptiles - There are 76 terrestrial reptiles of these 24 species are endemic.
Marine Life - Islands harbour more than 1,200 species of fish, 350 species of echinoderms, 1,000 species of molluscs and many more lower forms of life. Among vertebrates dugongs, dolphins, whales, salt water crocodiles, sea turtles, sea snakes, etc., are common.
Coral and Coral reefs - So far, 179 species of corals belonging to 61 genera have been reported. Reefs are mostly fringing type on eastern coast and barrier type on the western.
Andaman and Nicobar Islands have been recognised as an eco-friendly tourist’s destination. As a tourist paradise, these islands have something very special to offer like Cellular Jail, Ross Island and Havelock Island.
The Andaman tropical evergreen rain forests, beautiful silver sandy beaches, serpentine mangrove-lines creeks, marine life abounding in rare species of plants, animals, corals, etc., provide a memorable experience to the tourists. There is tremendous scope for enjoying nature in the beach resorts, water sports and adventure water sports, adventure tourism like trekking, Island camping, Nature trail, Scuba Diving, etc.
Tourism Department runs guest houses in various parts of the Islands for comfortable accommodation to tourists visiting these Islands. The important places of tourist interest are Anthropological Museum. Marine Museum, Water Sports Complex, Gandhi Park, North Bay, Viper Island, Ross Island, Chidiyatapu, (Bird watching), Red Skin Island, Corbyn’s cove Beach, Islands like Neil Island, Havelock Island, Cinque, Little Andaman, Diglipur (Ross and Smith), etc.
As regards the connectivity, the islands are well connected to the mainland by air and sea. Indian Airlines, Air Deccan, Jetlite operates to Portblair from Kolkata and Chennai. There are regular passenger ship service from Chennai, Kolkata and Vishakhapatnam.



Particulars Description
Area 114 sq km
Population 9,00,635
Capital Chandigarh
Principal Languages Hindi, Punjabi, English
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History and Geography
Chandigarh is a fully grown town of most modern architectural splendour. The city nestles in a picturesque setting in the foothills of Shivalik hills and enjoys the popular epithet the "City Beautiful". Representative of modern architecture and town planning, the city is a creation of the French Architect, Le Corbusier. Chandigarh and the area surrounding it were constituted as a Union Territory on 1 November 1966. It serves as the joint capital of both Punjab and Haryana States. It is bound on North and West by Punjab and on the East and South by Haryana.

Assembly Building, Chandigarh
Chandigarh Administration is moving on four broad fronts. First, it is our aim to provide, with the help of information technology, an accessible and transparent administration. We were among the earliest to implement the provisions of the Right to Information Act. A number of services, for which citizens earlier had to go to government offices, are now available on computer and mobile phones. All rules are being reviewed to see what simplification can be carried out to make them user-friendly. The purpose is to minimise the exercise of discretion, and minimise the leg work of the citizen in dealing with the Administration.
Secondly, the Administration is working towards a higher rate of economic growth by encouraging economic activities which provide greater value addition, such as knowledge based industries, high-end commercial activity, etc., Chandigarh already has the highest per capita income in the country
Thirdly, the Administration is seeking to provide infrastructural services such as electricity supply, water supply, health and educational services and public transport which should compare with those in advanced countries. It will take time, but we believe that our ambitions can be achieved in the medium term.
Fourthly, the Administration is all too conscious of the fact that the benefits of development do not reach everyone equally. Hence there is a special emphasis on reaching out to those whom development has by-passed.
The Union Territory Chandigarh has limited area under Agriculture. The agricultural land is being gradually acquired for the expansion of Chandigarh City, and cultivated area has shrunk from 5,441 hectares in 1966 to 1,400 hectares in 2002-03. The main sources of irrigation are deep-bore tube-wells installed by the Administration and shallow tube-wells installed by individual farmers. The main crop of foodgrain is wheat and it is sown nearly in 700 hectares of land. The Department is making efforts to promote techniques of harvesting by following measures:
1. Extension and Farmers Study/Training Tour
2. Development of Kitchen Garden
3. Soil and Water Conservation.
The Administration is developing the Phase-III of the Industrial Area at the revenue estate of village Mauli Jagran. 152 acres of land have been acquired.
After a gap of 17 years, Chandigarh was awarded Silver Medal amongst all UTs for its excellent display at the recently held India International Trade Fair, 2007, New Delhi.
Information Technology
Construction work of Chandigarh Administration's visionary project RGCTP is in its full swing. Completion of Phase III will provide direct employment to 35000 professionals, thereby increasing the direct employment of RGCTP to 67,000 and would create 2, 00,000 indirect jobs in Chandigarh. The Entrepreneur Development Centre at the RGCTP is being set up over an area of 1.5 acres approximately. The centre would become operational this year.
Chandigarh has become a role model in using information technology to provide fast and user friendly services for the masses. Under the E-Governance initiatives of the Department, seven more Gram Sampark Centres have been set up in the villages of Dhanas, Khudda Jassu, Kaimbwala, Raipur Khurd, Raipur Kalan, Makhan Majra and Bahlana in 2007. As many as seven more Gram Sampark Centres in villages Palsora, Dadu Majra, Hallo Majra, Khuda Alisher, Daria, Mauli Jagran and Maloya have been made operative.
In addition to the existing Centres some more Sampark Centres have been proposed and new services like payment of BSNL bills, power bills, water bills, payment of LIC premium, school fees collection and tube well booking, especially for rural citizens , has also been incorporated or are being afoot.
The Administration is working on energy conservation. A Work order has been issued to the Tata BP Solar Ltd. for commissioning the State Level Energy Park at the Botanical Garden. Under the Solar Lighting initiative, all street lights in the villages would be replaced with solar based street lights.
Provisions of sufficient electricity to all the residents of UT are also getting attention of the Administration. To improve the voltage profile and to reduce the load on the power distribution network of UT, the Electricity Wing had planned to add 80 MVAR Automatic Capacitor Banks at various existing 66KV Grid Sub-Station located at different points in the periphery of UT.
Use of CFL has been made mandatory inside all government buildings. Similarly, all institutional buildings will have to provide solar lighting in their parking spaces within their complexes.
The Electricity Wing also achieved its target in reduction of transmission & distribution losses from 20.89% to 19.29%. The reduction is around 1.5%. Every effort is being made to reduce the losses further in the next year by another 1.5%.
Rural Development
In order to sensitise the poor and weaker sections of the society about the rights and different benefits being extended to them by the State Legal Services Authority, 14 legal awareness seminars have already been organized in different villages of the UT.
Cement concrete paving and underground drains in village Kajheri and Palsora have been completed. 70 per cent work in village Mauli Jagran has been completed.
The Administration has opened a Girls Hockey Academy in sector-18 and would shortly start two more girls academies — one for Cricket and another for Football. The Administration successfully organized a One-day International Cricket match between India and Australia on October 8, 2007 by upgrading the Cricket Stadium of Sector-16. Various facilities of international standards and latest ground equipments have been added. A new athletic-cum-Football stadium would be built with all state-of -art-facilities in Sector 56 with a seating capacity of 40,000 spectators, the process for which has already started. Indoor provisions for Basket Ball, Volley Ball, Judo and wrestling will also be provided in this stadium.
In the year 2007, the Chandigarh Sports Council had set up two more new in-house Academies, in Hockey and Cricket to churn out high class first rate players from the UT. All facilities including board and lodging, education, diet, sport gear etc. are being provided free-of-cost to the trainees in the academies.
Social Welfare
Social Welfare has been a major focus of the Administration. Many people-friendly and innovative schemes for them have been launched by Administration. To wipe away the menace of casteism and encourage the people for inter-caste marriage, a sum of Rs.5,000 is granted to the married couples provided that one of the spouses belongs to SC Community. The Administration has enhanced the amount to Rs.50,000.
Under the Balika Samridhi Yojana, A sum of Rs.500 is being given to the newly born girl child in the BPL families. The Chandigarh Administration has decided to set up a Preparatory School for Children with Special Needs (for 50 children) which will run in the premises of PRAYAS Building, Sector 38. An outlay of about Rs.14 lakh has been proposed in the Annual Plan 2008-09 for purchase of equipments and other contingent expenditure.
The Vocational Training Centre for Street Children in Maloya with the capacity to provide training for 900 children is under construction. The Administration has set up a child help line.
Telemedicine Project has been launched with state-of-art facilities at Government Medical College and Hospital, Sector 32, Chandigarh aiming to help needy patients to avail the expert advice of the doctors of specialized fields in PGI and ensuring them high-quality medical services.
The Government Multi Speciality Hospital (GMSH), Sector 16 has been upgraded by adding a Trauma Unit having 28 beds with Emergency Operation Theatres.
The Administration has launched the project for improving the Monitorable Indicators of Reproductive and Child Health in UT at a cost of Rs.5,273 per mother and her child.
Seven more "State of the art" operation theatres including pre-anaesthesia, post-anaesthesia rooms and a post operative ward has been commissioned in Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh. "SAMARTH" a residential house for mentally retarded individuals had also been set up in Sector 15, Chandigarh. A huge total of around 5.6 crore has been sanctioned for the Residential Accommodation of the eligible faculty staff of GMCH.
Chandigarh Administration is coming up with its World Class Project, the multi institutional 'Chandigarh Education City' at Sarangpur with a total area of 130 acres. Administration has enhanced the attendance scholarship being given to girl students of general category from Rs.30 per month to Rs.250 per month for a period for Class 1st to 5th. For ensuring enrolment and education among schedule caste boys and girls, Administration has also decided to increase the attendance scholarship being given to the Scheduled Castes students studying in Class 1st to 8th fromRs.30 per month to Rs.250 per month in the age group of 6 to 14 years.
It has been decided to increase the scholarship to the meritorious SC/ST students of Class 9th to 12th; it has been now increased to Rs.300 per month whereas it was Rs.20/- and 25/- earlier.
Chandigarh Administration has also decided to exempt the tuition fees of Muslims, Christians, Other Backward Classes, Handicapped, Ward of Freedom Fighters, Ex-serviceman, widows and divorcees having family income below Rs.1.5 lakh per year. For the children belonging to low income groups and slum based families, it has decided to give incentive of Rs.250 per month to rope in the children presently not enrolled in any school on their fresh enrolment.
Administration has taken many innovative and novel measures like Wedding Tourism. With the focus on extending efficient medical, educational and entertainment oriented facilities, Administration is promoting Cinematic Tourism, Sports Tourism and Medical Tourism in a big way. Chandigarh International Airport will prove to be a big leap for Tourism in the region.
Chandigarh Housing Board is working on various projects. CHB being a Nodal agency for the implementation of the 'Chandigarh Small Flats Scheme-2006' has during the year finalized the process for implementation of the construction of 25,728 One Room Tenement under the scheme in two phases. Construction of 1024 Flats in Sector 49 and 1120 Flats in Sector 38 (West) under the scheme has already commenced. Similarly, construction at the remaining six locations will commence in due course of time.
The Board during the year, has completed construction of 326 Prefab Shelters in Sector-56 for allotment to rag pickers of the City. Construction of 400 EWS houses in Sector-49 & 288 EWS houses in Sector-38 (W) under the scheme is in progress and is likely to be completed by February, 2009.
A special self-financing Housing Scheme has ben launched by the Board for allotment of Dwelling Units to the employees of the Administration which will be constructed over 45.5 acres of land in Sectors-52 and 56. Reservation of 5 per cent in favour of employees retiring within three years and those who have retired in the last three years has been kept in the scheme. Reservation of 3% for physically challenged persons has also been made.
As a step towards utilization of land vacated by Slum Dwellers in Sector-26 (East) Madrasi Colony, CHB has commenced construction of 160 EWS houses in the area. The work is likely to be completed by March, 2009.
The construction of 256 one bedroom and 208 two-bedroom flats are in progress and are likely to be completed by June, 2008. The construction of 400 EWS and 288 EWS are likely to be completed by March, 2009.
Municipal Corporation
Municipal Corporation Chandigarh has upgraded the Sewage Treatment Plant at Diggian at a cost of Rs.28 crore. MC also bagged the 1st prize both in water supply and sewage/drainage services from the Government of India, which was awarded by the Prime Minister of India.
A Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition System has been installed at a cost of Rs.700 crore to keep surveillance and monitor the water supply. It will save power consumption, reduce operation and maintenance cost by approximately Rs.3 crore annually.
To save portable water & provide additional water for landscaping, a project amounting to Rs.36 crores has been taken up. This project will generate 10 MGD tertiary water. The existing Dhobi Ghat of Sector 15 has been converted into Automatic Laundry Marts, The first of its kind in India.
Adding another milestone to up-gradation of the environment in City Beautiful, The Municipal Corporation has set up a Solid Waste Processing Plant at Dadu Majra at a cost of Rs.30.00 crores on 10 acres. The plant is one of its kinds in northern India.
Chandigarh Administration comprehending the need for a user friendly transport system has decided to launch a Mass Rapid Transport System shortly. The UT Administration and the State Governments of Punjab and Haryana have come together for the implementation of the project.
Administration will soon introduce Air Conditioned and Double Decker buses. 85 buses were purchased and put on routes during the year 2007-08.
CTU has computerized 70 per cent of its working and is in the process of further computerization. The Undertaking is also in the process of installing a Global Positioning System to monitor its fleet in a phased manner. The first phase of the ISBT Sector 43 has already started functioning and the second phase is scheduled for completion later this year.


Government of NCT of Delhi

Particulars Description
Area 1,483 sq. km
Population 13,850,507
Capital Delhi
Principal Languages Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu & English
• State Government Portal(External website that opens in a new window)
• District WebSite
• View exhaustive collection of pictures on India
History and Geography
Delhi finds prominent reference right from the times of the epic Mahabharata. Its control passed from one ruler/dynasty to another, beginning with the Mauryas, Pallavas, Guptas of Central India, and then to the Turk and Afghan during the 13th to 15th centuries, and finally to the Mughals in the 16th century. In the latter half of the 18th century and early 19th century, the British rule was established in Delhi. In 1911, Delhi became the centre of all activities after the capital was shifted from Kolkata. It was made a Union Territory in 1956. Lying in the northern part of the country, Delhi is surrounded by Haryana on all sides except the east, where it borders with Uttar Pradesh. The 69th Constitutional amendment is a milestone in Delhi's history, as it got a Legislative Assembly with the enactment of the National Capital Territory Act, 1991.
The principal food crops are wheat, bajra, jowar, gram and maize. However, emphasis has now shifted from food crops to vegetables and fruit crops, dairy, poultry-farming, floriculture, etc., as these are more remunerative than food crops in the territory.
Delhi is not only the largest commercial centre in northern India, but also the largest centre of small industries. These are manufacturing a wide variety of items like television, tape recorders, light engineering machines and automobile parts, sports goods, bicycles and PVC goods including footwear textiles, fertilizers, medicines, hosiery, leather goods, software, etc.
Delhi’s new millennium industrial policy, emphasizes setting up of high-tech and sophisticated industries in electronics, telecommunications, software industries, IT enabling services, etc. The industries, which are non-polluting and encourage high value addition and depend largely on skilled manpower, are being promoted. DSIDC is setting up Training Institute for Gems and Jewellery and Assaying and Hallmarking Centre at Okhla in the building of Hitech Vocational Centre.
For the purpose of relocating industrial units functioning in residential nonconforming areas, the Government of NCT of Delhi took possession of 1900 acres of land at village Bawana, Holambi Kalan and Holambi Khurd for developing new industrial estates. Bawana Industrial area developed by DSIDC is the largest in Asia and is spread over 1900 acres of land. At Narela 900 plots have been developed and allotted and another 600 plots are being developed. Work of construction of 378 flatted factories at Jhilmil Industrial Area for relocation of smaller units has been completed. 450 acres of land have been taken for development at the Bhorgaarh industrial estates. In addition to the above, 652 hectares of land is being acquired for development into a huge industrial area in Kanjhawala/Kerala.
Irrigation and Power
Due to fast urbanisation of the rural areas of Delhi, cultivable command area under irrigation is getting reduced day by day. Two schemes, namely, "Keshopur Effluent Irrigation Scheme Phase-III" and "Improvement and Extension of Effluent Irrigation System from Coronation Treatment Plant" are under execution. Irrigation of about 350 hectares with state tube-wells and 1,376 hectares from effluent water is being provided in the rural area of NCT of Delhi. In addition about 4,900 hectares of land is being irrigated from western Yamuna Canal network.
The firm availability of power for Delhi from its own generating units at Rajghat Power Houses, IP Station and Gas Turbines including Badarpur Thermal Station is of the order of 850-900 MW. The remaining power is drawn from Northern Regional Grid. Delhi has also envisaged a number of generating projects to be taken up. Pragati Combined Cycle Power Project has been established at Indraprastha Estate. A 330 MW Pragati Power Project under construction is scheduled to be commissioned soon. The test run for its first phase of 100 MW has already started. The work of newly planned 330 MW gas based power plant under Pragati-II and 1000 MW power plant planned at Bawana is going on. Existing coal-based Indraprastha plant is being replaced by 1000 MW gas based plant.
To streamline the distribution of power, DVB has been privatised and Delhi is now served by the two of the best electric utilities in India, BSES and Tata Power (NDPL).
Delhi is well connected by roads, rail and air with all parts of India. It has three airports-Indira Gandhi International Airport for the international flights, Palam Airport for domestic air services and Safdarjung Airport for training purposes. It has three important railway stations - Delhi Junction, New Delhi Railway Station and Nizamuddin Railway Station. Delhi has three inter-state bus terminals at Kashmeri Gate, Sarai Kale Khan and Anand Vihar.
Keeping in view the rising vehicular pollution and chaotic traffic condition in the city of Delhi, it has been decided to start Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS) in Delhi. The Project is under implementation and is uses the state-of-the-art modern technology. The metro rail project runs in Delhi. Now three metro corridors exist in phase-1 of Delhi Metro comprising of three corridors of total length of 65.1 Km have been completed and operational in record time with full commissioning of line from Shahdara to Rithala and Vishwa Vidyalaya to Central Secretariat. The third line from Barakambha road to Dwarka is also running to provide better connectivity to the commuters from NCR region.
Being a cosmopolitan city, all major festivals of India are celebrated here. Moreover, some tourism festivals have become regular annual events of Delhi. Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation organises Roshnara Festival, Shalimar Festival, Qutab Festival, Winter Carnival, Garden Tourism Festival, Jahane-Khusrao Festival and Mango Festival every year.
Tourist Places

Jantar Mantar, New Delhi
Important tourist places are Lal Quila (Red Fort), Jama Masjid, Qutab Minar, India Gate, Laxmi Narian Mandir (Birla Mandir), Humayun’s tomb, Lotus Temple, etc. Delhi Tourism and Transportation Development Corporation Limited conducts city sight-seeing and excursion tours. The Corporation has also introduced adventure tourism activities such as para-sailing, rock-climbing and boating in Delhi. The Corporation has also developed DELHI HAAT, where beverages and food items of different states are available at one place. More such HAATs are planned in different parts of Delhi. The Corporation is also running Coffee Homes in different parts of Delhi. The "Garden of five Senses" has also been opened in the South District of Delhi, which attracts a lot of tourists visiting Delhi.

Parliament of India, New Delhi

                                                                    Dadra and nagar haveli

Dadra and Nagar Haveli

Particulars Description
Area 491 sq km
Population 220,490
Capital Silvassa
Principal Languages Gujarati, Hindi
• State Government Portal(External website that opens in a new window)
• District WebSite
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History and Geography
After prolonged skirmishes between the Portuguese and the Marathas, on 17 December, 1779, the Maratha Government assigned the aggregated revenue of Rs 12,000 in a few villages of this territory to the Protuguese as compensation to ensure their friendship. The Portuguese ruled this territory until its liberation by the people on 2 August, 1954. From 1954 till 1961, the territory functioned almost independently by what was known as "Free Dadra and Nagar Haveli Administration". However, the territory was merged with the Indian Union on 11 August, 1961, and since then, is being administered by the Government of India as a Union Territory. After liberation of the territory from Portuguese rule, a Varishtha Panchayat was working as an advisory body of the Administration. This was dissolved in August 1989, and a Pradesh Council for Dadra and Nagar Haveli District Panchayat and 11 Village Panchayats were constituted as per constitutional amendments at All India level. The UT of Dadra and Nagar Haveli has an area of 491 sq km, and it is surrounded by Gujarat and Maharashtra. It consists of two pockets namely, Dadra and Nagar Haveli. The nearest railway station is at Vapi, which is 18 km from Silvassa.
Dadra and Nagar Haveli is a predominantly rural area with about 79 per cent tribal population. It has about 21,115 hectares under cultivation. Major crop is paddy (Kharif) while Nagli and other hill millets are crops of the area. Among fruits Mango, Chiku and Banana, etc., are also produced. Forests cover 40 per cent of the total geographical area.
Sugarcane cultivation has also been taken up in a big way since the last few years. And efforts are afoot to adopt a multiple cropping system in assured irrigated areas. During 2006-07, 87 MT of H.Y.V. seeds were distributed to 2211 farmers along with 1407 M.T. of chemical fertilizers to 6449 farmers. The organic farming scheme will shortly be implemented in Dudhani and Mandoni patelads. To this end, 60 Kisan Credit Cards have been issued.
The Wadi Development programme in the tribal area of both Dadra and Nagar Haveli is implemented by the N.G.O., B.A.I.F. with the financial allocation from NABARD, a total of 800 tribal and scheduled caste families will benefit.
Irrigation and Power
Prior to liberation of the territory, there was no irrigation facility and cultivators had to fully depend upon rainfall. After the merger of the territory with the Indian Union, adequate steps were taken under minor irrigation sector. So far 128 lift irrigation schemes have been completed on irrigation wells, surface water sources like rivers; check dams at various places in the territory crearing additional irrigation potential of 1,851 hectares. Under medium irrigation project viz., Damnganga Reservoir Project, about 115 km of minor canals and distributaries are falling in the area of this Union Territory. Development works have been completed in field channels in all respects in 4,300 hectares and testing is done in 4,049 hectares.
There was no rural electrification prior to liberation of this territory. The electricity was provided with only one DG Set which was installed and operated in Silvassa Town for VIPs at Circuit House.
After liberation, the UT Administration commenced rural electrification work with the co-operation of neighbouring State of Gujarat and completed electrification work in 25 villages by 1976. The power demand of the UT is met by Gujarat Electricity Board through a single Circuit from Vapi-Silvasa and distributed amongst limited number of consumers. The first 66 KV Sub-Station was established at Amli in 1979. With the commissioning of the said Sub-Station, the electricity department is in a position to provide electricity to all villages.
One more 220/66 KV, 2x160 MVA sub-station at village Khadoli has been approved by the Ministry of Power. The Power Grid Corporation of India will execute this work, which is likely to be completed within three years. In addition to this, a proposal for the establishment of various 66/11 KV sub-stations at Vaghdhara, Athal, Piparia, Sayli, Velugam etc is in the pipeline.
The Power requirement of the territory is being met from Central Sector Power Generating Stations located in the western region. At present the power allocation from the Central Sector is 270 MW. The power demand has increased tremendously due to rapid industrialisation with the extension of Tax Holiday benefit to this UT by the Government of India.
The Union Territory depends heavily on Maharashtra and Gujarat road network as the territory can be accessed only after crossing these two States from Mumbai. At present road length is about 635 km. out of which 570 km. is surfaced. Almost all villages are connected with all weather roads. The rail route from Mumbai to Ahmadabad links Vapi also. Mumbai is the nearest airport. Recently, the work of widening of roads in the Union Territory has been taken up to meet the requirement of increasing vehicular traffic.
To meet the need of rapid industrialisation, four-laning work has been taken up in Silvassa and adjoining areas, besides other spill over works. Converting of two lane road to four lane road for a length of 17.69 kms has been completed. The Dadra - Tighra road is under progress and during the current financial year i.e. 2007-08, another 5.70 kms length of road connecting Silvasa and Naroli is likely to be converted into a four-lane drive.

Tarpa Dance
Normally, all festivals of Hindus, Muslims and Christians are celebrated in the territory, while tribals celebrate their own festivals. Diwaso is celebrated by Dhodia and Varli tribes, and Raksha Bandhan is celebrated by Dhodia tribe. Other festivals include Bhawada amongst Varlist, Koli tribes and Khali Puja by all tribes after harvesting of crops and Gram Devi before harvesting of crops.

Hirvavan Garden, Dadra
Tourism sector has been assigned high priority, keeping in view the dense forest area and favourable climate. The prominent places of tourist interest are Tadekeshwar Shiva Mandir, Bindrabin, Deer Park at Khanvel, Vanganga Lake and Island Garden, Dadra, Vanvihar Udhyan Mini Zoo, Bal Udhyan, Tribal Museum, and Hirvavan Garden at Silvassa. To encourage tourism activities, some traditional and modern cultural activities like celebration of Tarpa Festival, Kite festival, World Tourism day, etc., are organised every year.

                                                                                Daman and diu

Daman and Diu

Particulars Description
Area 112 sq. km
Population 158,204
Capital Daman
Principal Languages Gujarati
• State Government Portal(External website that opens in a new window)
• District WebSite
History and Geography
Daman and Diu along with Goa was a colony held by the Portuguese, even after the Independence. In 1961, it was made an integral part of India. After conferring statehood on Goa on 30 May, 1987, Daman and Diu was made a separate Union Territory. Daman lies about 193 km away from Mumbai. It is bound on the east by Gujarat, on the west by the Arabian Sea, on the north by the Kolak River, and on the south by Kalai river. The neighbouring district of Daman is Valsad in Gujarat. Diu is an island connected by two bridges. The neighbouring district of Diu is Junagadh of Gujarat.
Agriculture and Irrigation
Total irrigated area is 393.93 h.a. and un-irrigated area is 3304.73 hectares as per the Agricultural Census 2000-01. In 2000-01 the net area under cultivation was 3375.65 h.a. Important field and garden crops are paddy, ragi, bajra, jowar, groundnut, pulses and beans, wheat, banana, sapota, mango, chickoo, coconut and sugarcane. There are no major forests in the territory.
Industry and Power
There are 2930 small-scale and medium-scale industries in Daman and Diu. Two industrial areas have been developed by Omnibus Industrial Development Corporation at Daman. The other industrial areas are Dabhel, Bhimpore, Kachigam and Kadaiya.
All villages have been electrified. Daman and Diu have got adequate power allocation from Central sector power stations in western region.
Roads: The total length of roads in Daman and Diu are 191 km and 78 km respectively.
Railways: There is no railway link with Daman and Diu. The Nearest railway station from Daman is Vapi on western railway on Mumbai-Delhi route. The nearest railway station from Diu is Delvada on meter-gauge.
Aviation: There are airports both in Daman and Diu. Diu has been connected by air and there is regular air service from Mumbai to Diu.
Tourist Centres
Important tourist places in Daman are as under: Bom Jesus Church, Our Lady of Sea Church; Our Lady of Remedios Church; Forts of Moti Daman and Nani Daman; Jampore and Devka Beaches; Public Garden and Moti Daman Jetty, Pargola Garden, Moti Daman, Amusement Park, Devka; Damanganga Tourist Complex, Kachigam; Satya Sagar Udyan, Mirasol Garden, Mirasal Water Park.
In Diu, St. Paul's Church; Diu Fort and Panikota Fort; Nagoa and Chakratirth and Children's park at Ghoghla and Summer House are famous places of tourist interest.



Particulars Description
Area 32 sq. km
Population 60,650
Capital Kavaratti
Principal Languages Malayalam, Jeseri (Dweep Bhasha) and Mahal
History and Geography
Not much is known about the early history of these islands. The islands that were supposed to have been inhabited first are Amini, Andrott, Kavaratti, and Agatti. It was earlier believed that the islanders were originally Hindus, and later converted to Islam under the influence of Arab traders, sometime in the 14th century. But Archaeological evidences unearthed indicate that there were Buddhist settlements around the 6th or 7th century. Earliest Muslim converts or settlers pre-date the year 139 AH of the Hijra year (eighth century), of which period grave stones have recently been discovered in Agatti. This would tend to bear out the traditional belief that Islam was brought to the Island by Arab Saint, Ubaidulla in 41 AH.
Probably independent till 16th century, the Islands were driven to seek the assistance of Raja of Chirakal to help them avert establishment of Portuguese domination. This enabled him to establish his authority, and later, the islands were transferred in jaggier to Ali Raja, head of Moplah community in Cannanore, who later became an independent ruler himself. The Arakkal rule was not popular and in 1787, Tipu Sultan acceded to the petitions of the Northern islands to annex these islands. After the fall of Tipu Sultan, the Islands were passed to East India Company, but continued to be ruled de facto by the rulers of Cannanore, till their ultimate annexation by the British in the early 20th century. In 1956, the islands were constituted into a single territory, and since then, have been directly administered by the Union Government through an Administrator. The Laccadives, Minicoy and Amindivi group of islands were renamed as Lakshadweep in 1973. Lakshadweep, a group of coral islands consist of 12 atolls, three reefs and submerged sand banks. Of the 27 islands, only 11 are inhabited. These lie scattered in the Arabian Sea about 280 km to 480 km off Kerala coast between 8° and 12° 3' North Latitude and 71° and 74° East Longitude.
Coconut is the only major crop with a production of 580 lakh nuts per year. The area under cultivation is about 2,598 hectares. Lakshadweep coconut is branded as an organic product. In India, Lakshadweep stands first in coconut production and productivity per hector is 22,310 per hector and average yield per palm per year is 97 nuts. The Lakshadweep coconuts are the highest oil content nuts in the world (72 percent).

Fishing is another major activity. The sea around the island is highly productive. The islands stand first in the country in per capita availability of fish. During 2009, 11,751 tonnes of fish have been landed in this U.T.
Coconut fibre extraction and conversion into fibre products is the main industry in the islands. Under Government Sector, there are seven coir fibre factories, five coir production cum demonstration centres and seven fibre curling units, functioning under coir sector. These units produced coir fibre and coir yarn in addition to other coir products like curled fibre, corridor mat, mat and mattings. A few coir twisting unit also function in private sector.
At present M.V. Kavaratti, M.V. Tipu Sultan, M.V. Bharat Seema, M.V. Minicoy, M.V. Amindivi and M.V. Dweep Setu are operating in the mainland-island sector. From 2008-09 onwards three 150 passenger high speed vessels HSC Valiyapani HSC Cheriyapani and HSC Parali are doing service in Andrott/Kochi/Beypore sector as well as in Minicoy-Kavaratti Sectors. The other inter island ferries M.V. Khadeeja Beevi, M.V. Hameedath Bee, HSC Viringili, HSC Blue Marlin, HSC Black Marlin and HSC Skipjack provide connectivity between the islands except Minicoy and Bitra and Kavaratti. The Cargo traffic in this sector are handled with four cargo largest, namely M.V. Ubaidulla, M.V. Thinnakara, M.V. Laccadives and M.V. Cheriyam. Further one oil barge M.V. Sukheli (60 MT) is being utilized for providing bunker to winter-Island ferries at Kavaratti. Two 10 Ton Bullard Tugs are also in operation for assisting berthing of smaller ships at Andrott breakwater as well as for providing bunker for the speed vessels in the absence of Oil Barges at Andrott and Minicoy. Besides, the administration operates two helicopters for evacuation of serious patients from the islands to Kavaratti as well as to mainland. The second helicopter is used for meeting the requirement of emergency law and order situation and for inter-island connectivity during monsoon season. Helicopter connectivity between Kavaratti and Agatti/Bangaram is also provided for the passengers and tourists availing Indian Airlines and Kingfisher Airlines in Agatti-Kochi sector.
The 15 years Perspective Plan for shipping requirements in UTL are approved by Ministry of Shipping in December 2000. Among the 18 new ships recommended by the above plan, three 150 passenger high speed crafts and two 10 Ton Bullard Tugs have already been procured and inducted into service. One 15 passenger and three 50 passenger high speed vessels were also sanctioned by Government of India under PMGSY which has already been procured and inducted into service. Two 250 passenger cum 100 MT cargo ships are being constructed at Colombo Dockyard, Srilanka. The first ship is to be delivered in December 2009 and the second ship in June 2010. Six 200 passenger landing Barges are also being constructed at Vipul Shipyard, Goa, Apart from the above vessels, two landing Barges, one Oil Barge and one LPG Ships are also recommended by the committee for which tenders are being finalized by SCI. Proposal has also been submitted to Ministry of Shipping for approval of EFC for acquisition of one 400 passenger ship.
Tourist Centres

A Beach
Tourism is developing into an important industry. Important tourist places are Agatti, Bangaram, Kalpeni, Kadmat, Kavaratti and Minicoy, etc. 13,115 tourists visited this year 2008-09 of which 2,852 are foreign tourists.



Particulars Description
Area 479 sq km
Population 974,345
Capital Puducherry
Principal Languages Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, English and French
History and Geography
The territory of (Puducherry) comprises the former French establishment Puducherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam, which lie scattered in South India. Puducherry, the capital of the territory was once the original headquarters of the French in India. It was under the French rule for 138 years and merged with the Indian Union on 1st November 1954. It is bounded on the east by the Bay of Bengal and on the three sides by Tamil Nadu. About 150 kms south of Puducherry on the East Coast lies Karaikal. Mahe is situated on the Malabar coast on the Western Ghats surrounded by Kerala. It can be reached from Calicut Airport, which is 70 kms from Mahe. Yanam is situated adjoining the East Godavari district of Andhra Pradesh and is about 200 kms from Visakhapatnam airport.
Nearly 24.37 per cent of the population of the Union Territory is engaged in agriculture and allied pursuits. 80.7% of the cultivated area is irrigated. Paddy is the predominant crop (65%) followed by pulses. Mahe region contributes to the plantation wealth of this territory. Crops like coconut, areca nut, condiments and spices are grown here. Paddy crop is a major crop and pulses, groundnut and chillies are the other rainfed crops grown in Yanam.
7,982 Industrial Units in total with an aggregate investment of Rs.2,177.78 crores provided employment to 93,044 persons up to March 2008. The total value of production of these industrial units worked out to Rs.13,455.34 crores.
Further, during the financial year 2006-2007 (upto March 2007) the value of exports in respect of the various products manufactured by the export oriented units is Rs.901.06 crores.
Under the assistance from the European Union many tanks were rehabilitated. 8 bed dams have been constructed across the river Sankaraparani and Pennar at various places. In addition to the above, necessary proposal to construct bed dams for ground water recharges at Aratchikuppam, Pambaiyar confluence point at Sellipet, across Malatar in Vadukuppam at Puducherry and across Mullaiyar, Pravadayanar and Vanjiar at Karaikal and also the construction of a bridge-cum-barrage at Villanur are under progress.
The Power requirements of the Union Territory of Puducherry are met by availing share of power from the Central Generating Stations and by purchasing power from the neighbouring State Electricity Boards viz., Tamilnadu Electricity Board, Kerala State Electricity Board and from the Puducherry Power Corporation Limited. The total power available for Union Territory of Puducherry is 396 58 MW.
Roads nearly 677.525 km. of various category are being maintained by Roads Divisions of PWD Puducherry. Construction of bridges and improvement of roads are under progress.
Urban Development
Sewerage scheme in sub urban areas of Pondicherry has been taken up at a cost of Rs.4.48 crore. The implementation of underground drainage scheme in Karaikal is proposed at a cost ofRs.34.00 crore after conducting the investigation. Revitalisation of Bharathi Park is proposed at a cost of Rs.2.47 crore under C.S.S. New Sewerage treatment plant in Lawspet and Dubrayapet are being commissioned to cater the growing demand.

Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Puducherry
Located about 160 Km South of Chennai, Puducherry (known in Tamil as Puddcherry), the former French Colony of the early 18th Century, is a charming Indian town with a few enduring pockets of French Culture, and an Ashram set beside the sea. Together with the other former French enclaves of Karaikal (also in Tamil Nadu), Mahe (Kerala), Yanam (Andhra Pradesh), it now forms the Union, Territory of Puducherry. The uniqueness of this town invariably lies in skillful town planning and Franco Tamil architecture. The town is built on the model of "bastide", a fortified French coastal town of the late 18th Century.
Being the legendary abode of renowned saints, ancient trading settlement with Rome and Greece, once capital of French India, a spiritual Power house, Puducherry has touristic resources in the back waters, rivers, beaches and other areas developed as sustainable eco-tourist facilities. Influenced by East and West, Puducherry has unique handicrafts in leather pottery, hand made paper, incense and antique colonial furniture. Late Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru rightly described Puducherry as "the Window of French Culture".
Sri Aurobindo, the great seer, poet and prophet of Indian spirituality, preached his vision and ideals staying in Puducherry till his life. His Ashram is still a unique institution with its distinctive way of life attracting people from all over the world.

Being the legendary abode of renowned saints, ancient trading settlement with Rome and Greece, once capital of French India, a spiritual Power house, Pondicherry has touristic resources in the back waters, rivers, beaches and other areas developed as sustainable eco-tourist facilities. Influenced by East and West, Pondicherry has unique handicrafts in leather pottery, hand made paper, incense and antique colonial furniture. Late Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru rightly described Pondicherry as "the Window of French Culture".
Sri Aurobindo, the great seer, poet and prophet of Indian spiritually, preached his vision and ideals staying in Pondicherry till his life. His Ashram is still an unique institution with its distinctive way of life attracting people from all over the world.
The new Pondicherry Tourism Development Corporation was evolved on 1 April 2005 with the aim on new tourism projects, diversification and expansion of the existing tourism activities.